The election of officers under the new constitution was proceeded with and resulted as follows: The local organization in the different municipalities was then proceeded with, resulting in the choice of the following gentle- men as officials in their respect- ive municipalities. Directors Peter Smith, J. Canon Dav- idson, A. Secretary, And- rew Somerville. Small, David Westover, E. Collins, Directors, Stephen Der- rick, B. Farnhanr to be chosen later. The By-Laws for the Woman's Committee were adopted as fol- lows: This committee shall be composed of women who are members of the Society and in future be selected at the annual meeting of the Society, by bal- lot or otherwise, but shall con- tinue in office until their success- ors shall have been selected at such meeting.
This Committee shall consist of two Honorary Presidents, a President, a Vice- President, and one woman elect- ed from each Municipality in the County provided by Article IV of the Constitution of the Society, and a Secretary, not necessarily a member of the Committee. The Committee shall report to the Annual Meeting of the Soc- iety and more often if required by the President or Secretary of the Society. The Committee shall endeav- or to interest the public in the work of the Society by keeping its objects before the people in a social manner.
This Committee shall have a Sub-Committee which shall, for convenience, be composed of mem- bers in or near Bedford. The ordinary rules of par- liamentary procedure shall govern the meetings of the Committee. These By-Laws may be amended or added to at any meeting of the Society of which each member shall have three day's notice.
Meetings shall be called by a notice on the authority of the President or Secretary. The quorum at any meeting of the Committee shall be live members, and of the Executive Committee shall be three mem- bers. The adoption of these by-laws was moved by Z. Beeman and seconded by M. The further organization of the Woman's Committee was deferred until a later meeting. There being no further urgent business the meeting adjourned to meet at the call of the president.
James Church Hall to-day. The meeting was attended by about sixty persons from every municipality in the county, ex- cepting Farnham, which sent no representative. Taylor, Secretary of the Brome County Society. Baker, Wilfred Dion, Rev. Wil- liam Robinson, J. Hunter, Asa Rykert, E. McKee, Joseph Sawyer, M. Freleigh' Miss Ireland, Mrs. Derrick, were among the ladies present. The meeting was opened by the President, Mr. Noyes with a few introductory remarks. The minutes of the meetings of the society during the year were read by the Secretary, Mr.
Jones, and upon motion were approved. The president addressed the society as follows: I shall be as brief as possible in what I have ,to say to-day in respect to my of- ficial work during the past year. I regret to say the past records of the Society are not voluminous or instruc- tive.
Indeed, had it not been for the timely forethought of the President of the Woman's Auxiliary Branch we should have been without any records at all of the past doings of the Society. As the Secretary in his report will give the business data of the past year I shall content myself with more general matters. Our Society has now been in existence several years, and its progress has been marked with no events likely to revolutionize historical methods, or to at- tract widespread attention for work per- formed in the line for which it was or- ganized. Last year, when the Society was practically forgotten, its President and Secretary died within a few days of each other, leaving it in a state of or- phanage and disorganization.
Fortunately Judge Lynch, whose judicial functions are in part the care of waifs, had been the founder of the Society, as a native born son of Missisquoi, and had been made an honorary President. On the suggestion of some members of the Society he conven- ed a meeting at Stanbridge East last August, at which officers were elected. It was then discovered that no by-laws or regulations had been enacted, though the Society had been legally incorporated. A committee was appointed to remedy that default, and at a meeting also held at Stanbridge East in Sept.
A Woman's Auxiliary Branch was partly organized at the same time by the election of a Pre- sident. The full organization of that, as well as of the Society, was left to be perfected later, and to a great extent both have failed. At that last meeting it was decided to hold meetings through- out the county to excite a deeper inter- est in the work, secure members, com- plete the organization and solicit a more active co-operation on the part of those well disposed towards the Society.
A va- riety of untoward circumstances retarded this intention. The elections, federal and local, the necessary absence of the Secre- tary and the illness of the President ex- hausted the autumn and winter seasons, and when spring came there was little hope of doing much in opposition to ag- ricultural operations. As it was, four meetings were held at Cowansville, Fre- lighsburg, Dunham and Bedford the two first under the supervision of our zealous Secretary alone, whilst at the two last I was able to join him, assisted bv other gentlemen.
A picnic of the Society was also held at Isle aux Noix early in July, org- anized by that zealous and efficient work- er, Wm. I regret to say, that neither at the meetings, nor at the picnic was there such an attendance as to indicate a strong feeling favorable to the Society, though I have no doubt there were ex- tenuating circumstances for this in each instance. Apart from what I have just mention- ed, the most important work in the gen- eral trend of the Society, in my opinion, has been the publication of historical notes in a special column kindly given for our use in The News by its eenerous publish- ers, Messrs.
Theodora Moore reluctantly consented to be its editor and it is not her fault if contributions have not been what they ought to have been. I think that I owe it to Mrs. Moore to say that her reluct- ance was not due to want of interest in the Society, but rather to a too modest estimate of her qualifications. What she has done with the material furnished in- dicate that no mistake was made in the selection of an editor of that column. It is a pity that out of the great mass of interesting and Valuable material scatter- ed here and there throughout the county, so little has been gathered for that col- umn which later could be put in shape for a long contemplated local history.
The disinclination to help is not reassur- ing. A not inconsiderable number of well meaning people seem imbued with the idea that it is the duty of some one else, some unnamed and unknown party, to roam about the county and ferret out and write up incidents which no one could do so effectively as those personal- ly cognizant of those incidents or have traditional knowledge of them.
A plain statement by plain people could later be put in shape and would be useful and ef- fective for the purposes of local history. It is not lofty composition that is need- ed so much as facts, incidents, traditions and family records. Unless more zealous local help can be given, or adequate fi- nancial means provided for it to be done by others, it is obvious that little pro- gress can be made towards local history of a permanent value. In the meantime, on behalf of the Society, I feel it my duty my pleasant duty to express our great obligation to Messrs.
Theodora Moore for her earnest and ex- cellent work in editing that column. It is possible I take a too gloomy view of the situation.
But, after all, whilst I feel justified in complaining of the lack of assistance and encouragement given the Society's officers during the year, I am inclined to think some good has been done, which, later, may pro- duce results of some value. The seed has been sown, not too industriously, per- haps, but it is hoped that it may fruc- tify. There has been talk here and thp. The note of sneering disparagement of the Society heard when formerly mentioned has mostly disappeared, leading to the hope that greater interest will be shown and work of a more lasting character wi'.
Need I say that I share the belief of those who claim that a people who take no pride in their ancestry, are indifferent as to what their forbears did in the brave days of old and hape no curiosity as to how they be re themselves in the stress of early settlement, is a people greatly to be pitied.
There is, in every well constituted mind, a strong attachment to the place where one is born ond reared, and a stronger attachment for those from whom cne is descended. It is to bring together facts and incidents to show that one has reason to be proud not only of the land, but the spot there- of, in which he was born, and an equal- ly strong reason to reverence the mem- ory of the hardy stock from which one, takes his origin, that this Society has been organized.
I can say this without beina; charged with local vain-glory or boast- fulness, seeing that I am not a native of the county, and it has no special claim upon me. It was the first of those coun- ties in which permanent settlement was made and continuously and prosperously carried on. The character and orior lo- cation of most of those early settlers dif- fered in many important respects from those who settled in the other counties. Its location placed it in a unique posi- tion compared with others.
It was from the earliest known records the highway of border warfare. It is the only county in the Eastern Townships in which armwt men have faced one another in battle IT- ray, in mortal combat, in some ofwbich. Nor can there be any question that it was a sturdy race of people who began pioneer life in the county of? The traditions re- specting them ought to be of the deepest interest to us who are now enjoying the results of their labors.
The story of those old pioneers deserves to be rescued from oblivion. It is to do that, that this Society has been organized. It is to con- sider means and take steps to carry out the purposes of such organization that we have met to-day. The real oojects oi iiie Society then must be, to gather all the incidents a ad traditions respecting early settlement, all things connected with the pioneers in that settlement, and put the whole in shape that those who come after us mav not, like us, be groping after things un- seen.
To accomplish this we must bend our energies to two objects. Full anil complete histories of the several munici- palities in the county ; and 2. The pro- curing or construction of a building foi a museum to contain relics and souven- irs of the early settlement. There are 'many such local histories, and museums in the New England Sta: It is merely a matter of taking hold with determination in the right spirit. But these things cost mon- ey. It is idle to dream of some un - l: Let us face the situation bravely and be practical men and women.
To-day our assets are nil. The annual membership fee has been placed at the abnormally low sum of 25 cents. There are less than members of the Society. The sum realized is insufficient to pay postage and printing of the simplest kind for ordinary routine work. The' officers of the Society have not only worked gratuitously, but have paid from their own means consider- able sums of money to carry on the work of the Society.
That practice can- not always continue and should not. The people of the county of Missisquoi must furnish the money to carry on the work and accomplish the objects mentioned or it will not be done. This must be done cheerfully and ungrudgingly and that peo- ple have the means to do it, if so inclin- ed. With such an income suitable per- sons could he engaged to gather up ma- terial for local history in each locality and competent persons employed to write such history.
It is useless to expect spontaneous offerings or that people will do the work without recompense. We have no right to be so exacting. A building for a museum could be purchased and the old relics and sou- venirs could be picked up and housed for the gratification of those to come after us. I am asking you to look at the matter not only from the practical, busi- ness point of view, but as loyal, patrio- tic sons and daughters of Missisquoi. For there must always be the question of sentiment to help the thing along.
The experience of the past few years in the history of the Society teaches that but little can be expected from voluntary ef- fort, no matter how well directed. We must employ workers, and to do that must have money, and a good deal of it, for a time. Unless these things be done I can see no future for the Society no hope of anything substantial being ac- complished. It is for the people of Missis- qjuoi to decide. I have conceived it to be my duty, in the interests of the Society, to state the needs and leave the matter for your consideration.
I dislike to even think that the people of old Missisquoi lack sufficient public spirit to make the Society a success. In the hands of my successor I shall hope for better results. I shall at all times be willing to do my part in helping the Society to accomplish the laudable ob- jects I have mentioned, but I shall no longer fill the office to which I was un- willingly elected last year.
It is a posi- tion which naturally belongs to a son of the county, and which can only be awk- wardly filled by one born elsewhere. Be- sides, other duties prevent my continu- ance in the office. It may not be neces- sary for me to mention my intention. You may have already reached the con- clusion that a change in the office of President will not harm the society, a conclusion in which I could heartily con- cur. I cannot conclude without expressing; my sincere appreciation of our zealous Secretary, Mr. Jones, for his cordial and intelligent co-operation in all things tend- ing to benefit the Society during the past year.
His knowledge of the workings of such a Society, and his keen interest in its work, have greatly lightened my la- bors and have been of great benefit to the Society. He brought order out of chaos in our records and has been inde- fatigable in promoting our special work. I feel he is entitled to this recognition, in default of other, for his zealous and unselfish labors which no one better than myself, from the position you gave me, can so well appreciate their value. Personally, I have reason to feel grati- fied during my official term for many pleasant acquaintances which otherwise I should never have made ; for a corres- pondence which has been instructive and agreeable, and for information upon manv matters which I scarcely think would have come to my notice had it not been for the position I held in the Society.
Abroad, at a distance from home, it seems to have been thought creditable and honorable to be President of your Soci- ety, as I have reason to know. It is bet- ter to quit before, being found out. I can only hope that my successor, to justify our goo'd name abroad, will accomplish more and be able to make the Society something more than a pleasant sounding name. It would be ungracious in me not to say that I appreciated your kindness in the past. I shall always feel grateful for the distinguished mark of favor conferred in making me your President, as well as for many words of encouragement and of sympathy.
I am as sensible as any one can be that more might have been ac- complished, and it has been a source of deep regret to me that I have been un-' able to do all that I felt ought to have been done, or all which you probably ex- pected from me. I cordially and sincerely thank all those who have in any way helped during the past year, and I promise to loyally co- operate with and help those who may in the future direct the affairs of the So- ciety, in so far as I can. Jones then present- ed his report as follows: Jones, Secretary, then read his report as follows: In making this, my first report as Secretary of the Missisquoi Historical Society, I shall con- fine myself as far as possible to a con- sideration of its business interests and endeavor to present as exact a measure of its progress during the year as may be.
The Society, as you are aware, suffered the almost crushing misfortune last year of losing both its executive officers by the death of Dr. Cotton, the Presi- dent, and Dr. Smith, the Secre- tary. A meeting was called by the Sen- ior Honorary President, the Hon.
Judge Lynch, to be held at Stanbridge East on the 15th of August, At this meet- ing, which was composed of representa- tives from every portion of the County of Missisquoi, the Society was reorganized. Among those who took part in the pro- ceedings at this meeting were: Honor- able Judge Lynch, Hon. Anderson, David Vaughan, Geo. At a subsequent meeting held also at Stanbridge East, the work of this committee was ratified and an active campaigne at once projected by the executive. I at once placed myself in touch with interested parties in every portion of the county in an attempt to awaken interest and to bring the Society and its objects prominently before the people.
A series of meetings in the different local centres was decided upon, but from causes of which I will speak later ; it was found necessary to abandon many of them. The Historical Notes Column in the St. Johns News was also inaugurated under the direction of Mrs. Theodora Moore, of Stanbridge East, and by this means much ground was covered. It has tended greatly to increase tne interest in the Society and extend its influence. Moore is deserving of our warmest thanks for all the sacrifices she has shown in discharging the duties which have devolv- ed upon her in connection with this work.
The projected meetings of the Society were delayed by circumstances almost be- yond our control. It seemed as if the fates were opposed -to our plans. The few meetings which we were able to hold, were held under the most adverse circum- stances. To fix the date for a meeting seemed the forecast of a violent snow, rain, or wind storm ; nevertheless we per- severed.
The initial meeting was held at Cowansville on the evening of January 31st. The meeting was very largely attended and was presided over by the Rev. Through the illness of the President of our So- ciety, the duty of explaining the aims and objects of the Society devolved up- on me. I also endeavored to interest the audience in some of the incidents of the early settlement of Missisquoi. In this, I was partially successful, as an interest- ing and animated discussion followed, in which Dr.
Taber and others participated. From the very lively interest shown at this. On February 15th a second meeting was' held at Frelighsburg. Although the wea- ther was extremely cold, and the roads in a very poor condition from a recent storm, there was a very fair turnout. The Vice-President of the Society, Mr.
The local organiza- tion was discussed and steps taken. Shepherd all interested themselves in the matter and after the discussion, it was decided that Mr. Beedee should act as Secretary of the local organization andi an active campaign was at once project- ed. Beedee's health failed, and the work of collecting the data required in St.
Armand East has been neglected. Beedee, whose death ensued shortly after, was a deeply inter- ested and valued member of our Society and I wish to place on record my appre- ciation of his unselfish labors in our be- half. On April 29th a meeting was held in the Town Hall in the village of Dun- ham. The attendance was smaller than at any one of the previous meetings ; but much interest was shown. The President of the Society presided. Sena- tor Baker, who had driven in from Bol- ton some twenty miles distant, under weather conditions which were anything but favorable, especially to attend this meeting, gave an address dealing with "Old Time Dunham," his birthplace.
The discussion which followed and which was participated in by Asa Rykert, E. Baker and the Rev. Plaisted was very interesting and encouraging. On the 3rd of June we held a meeting in the Town Hall at Bedford. At this meeting the President, Secretary and Messrs. Davies also interested themselves in the proceedings. I regret to say, that in Bedford, although my native town, it is very difficult to awaken much interest in the affairs of our Society. Our annual outing took the form of an excursion to Isle Aux Noix on July 5th, where a very pleasant day was passed inspecting the antiquated fortifications of Fort Lennox.
We are much indebted to Mr. Wil- liam Mead Pattison for the interest he exhibited in the matter and for the most excellent paper which he read at the time on Fort Lennox. I venture to refer briefly to the matter of finance in connection with our Society, it not being altogether outside my par- ticular function as Secretary. It must be obvious to any person who considers the matter at all, that it is futile to attempt serious work in furthering the real ob- jects of the Society with an income so meagre as scarcely to meet ordinary ex- penses of office and correspondence.
There is much to do. The growth in the matter of correspondence alone creates an ever increasing demand upon our income. The officers work gratuitously. It is too much to ask them to do this, and, at the same time pay the running ex- penses of the Society as well as their own personal expenses. Our present in- come is palpably inadequate - to successful- ly carry on the work of the Society, and steps should be taken to remedy this. By practising the most rigid economy, and bringing to bear on the matter energies which should have been employed in doing other work of the Society, I was enabled to admin- ister our business affairs and report a surplus of lie.
About 50 per cent, of our expenditure was for printing, as I am a firm believer in the use of "printer's ink.
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After fullv considering the matter, I have come to the conclusion that it is entirely in- compatible with the execution of the work to say nothing of the dignity of our Society to endeavor to administer its affairs with the limited means at the command of the executive. Another matter to which I wish to re- fer in this report, is, the extensive cor- respondence which I have maintained with the friends of the Society in every part of the county during the year.
From this source I have derived much pleasure and encouragement. Many are reached by this means who would be difficult to reach otherwise. One of those correspondents I wish to especially mention, although I have not the pleasure of an intimate per- sonal acquaintance, yet, I know him to be a warm supporter of the Society, and I am indebted to him for many valuable suggestions during the year which have tended to make my work easier and more effective.
I refer to Mr. William Mead Pattison, of Olarenceville, and I would take this occasion to express my appreci- ation of the kindness and interest shown by him and other friends of the Society in this respect. I wish also to place on record my ap- preciation of the unvarying kindness and self-sacrificing interest of our chief ex- ecutive, Mr. I have always found in him, a friend of experience and judg- ment ; always willing to confer and ad- vise about the most trivial matters touching the interest of the Society, and it is only due to him to say that our success, whatever it may have been if I may employ the term, is due in a great measure to him alone.
A retrospective view of the year's work, while not likely to afford us any. We have broken the ground, and it now remains for us to prosecute the work, vigorously, intelligently and unremittingly. What a field we have before us! No event ' of great historical significance may have occured in Missisquoi ; but our county's history is richer in historical incident than any of our sister counties in the district of Bedford. What we have to do, is to unravel the past, to locate 'and mark plainly the highways by which our fathers journeyed to our present position of comfortable affluence.
But this report has already gone be- yond the limit of my original intention, and for this reason and for fear of laying myself open to the charge of being a sort of historical "sign post," pointing the way for others ; but never travelling in it myself, I will conclude. But be- fore doing so, I wish to say a few words regarding my declining re-election as Secretary of this Society.
It is not be- cause of any loss of interest on my part, nor discouragement at the diffidence or lack of interest on the part of others, that I take this course ; but only for the reason 'that my time and means will not permit the sacrifice. I spoke of not losing interest. It would be impossible for me to, do that.
I must retain my interest in things historical for the reason that it is an inborn char- acteristic. I may be counted upon to do my best at all times to promote the in- terests of the Society, and perform to the best of my ability any duty required of me as a member of the Society and to ever look with interest and satisfac- tion on every forward movement, hoping that ultimately the realization of our hopes will be the full measure of our suc- cess. Theodora Moore, of Stanbridge, East, President of the Woman's Commit- tee of the Society, presented her annual report or address as follows: When the Women's Branch of the Mis- sisquoi Historical Society was created at the meeting of the Society last year, it was suggested that, as meetings of the Society were held in different municipali- ties of the county, members of the Com- mittee of that branch should be appoint- ed by the residents of the locality where the meeting was held.
The suggestion was not carried out, except in Dunham, where we were pleased to learn officially that Miss Baker, of the Dunham Ladies College ; Miss Clara Watson and Miss Jessie Small had been appointed for this branch of historical work. We sincerely hope, after this , annual meeting, that there may be a better understanding ; that women may be chosen to represent every part of the county ; that, as the scheme or plan of work develops, a live- lier interest may be awakened and that much profit, as well as pleasure may be derived from engaging in a work which should produce an influence, refining, soft- ening, reverential.
A quotation from Daniel Webster which was read by the President of this Society at a former meeting here, gives a thought worth remembering. We have received encouragement from many, and promises of help as well, from oth- ers. To illustrate what may be and what has been done by some of the wont- en members of the Missisquoi Historical Society, we refer to a letter which was published in the Historical Notes column of the Bedford News of May 19th last, signed "Constant Reader.
Armand were re- called, and there was evidence that our Society had been the subject of conversa- tion at social gatherings, also that rel- ics were prized as, witness the re-produc- tion of the quaint old invitation to a ball, dated "Missisquoi Bay, Dec. Thomas, a daughter of the Thomas famous for the conspicuous part he played as Editor of a Radical paper during the troublous times of the Canadian Rebellion. A copy of a letter care- fully kept and cherished for sixty-six years is given to the world, telling how adherence to principles called for the sacrifice of domestic happiness. And, quite recently, in the historical column, dated llth August we have the out- lines of the romantic story of Catherine McDonald, written by one of her great great granddaughters.
It is hoped that the other descendants now living will contribute more facts to this interesting sketch, which would be a fit subject for romance. It should be a pleasure to visit the aged and gather all possible knowledge from them concerning the early times, for we have reached a period in the nis- tory of the county in which tradition has become an important factor. For instance, not long ago, in conversation with a friend, she said that 'she had of- ten been a playmate of Chester Arthur, afterwards President of 'the United States, when his father, known as "Elder Ar- thur," taught school in the old school- house in Stanbridge East ; another tells us of the mass meeting held in the old St.
James Church, Stanbridge, when the renowned Hon. Louis Papineau was the principal speaker, and again we learn that the distinguished singer, Madame Al- bani made her debut in a little obscure hall, known at the time as the "Good Fellows Hall," which stood opposite the Stanbridge Academy. Thus three notable persons whose names will appear in his- tory, have been actors in scenes in that almost unknown, obscure little village.
The history of Stanbridge Academy will reveal the fact that from among the teachers and the pupils of that institu- tion there have been many who have at- tained influence and position in the Church and in the army, in literature and in art, and worthy representatives in law medicine, and in the commercial and industrial world.
It is pleasant to recall these things in thought and conversation, as we have done recently when discussing historical matters. To my mind, one of the most important things we should undertake, the Society as well as the Woman's Branch, is to awaken an interest in local history in the children. Many of them are born lovers of history, as is shown by the delight so apparent when they listen to tales of bygone times, when grandfather and grandmother were children.
To develop this innate taste for local history means more than appears at first sight.
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The methods of our neighbors to the south of us is commendable, when, in their schools the children are taught the geo- graphy and history of their own native town first ; then the county, afterwards the State, then the United States before other countries are mentioned, except in- cidentally when necessary to the history of the United States. There can be no question but that such instruction is conducive to patriotism, therefore let us try to bring out all that is lovely to see and all that is desirable to know about the native town, the home, for are not lovers, of home the best citizens?
Let us hope for more enthusiasm and zeal on this subject, in fact, enough genuine in- terest so that in every school district in the county there may l;e generous, patri- otic individuals or an individual, who will offer a prize for the best essay or paper on some local incident of historic value, to be competed for by the pupils of the school.
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It would help wonderfully in so many ways. It would give untold pleasure to the aged as they are con- sulted and encouraged to relate the inci- dents of early life when the world was all before them ; it would encourage ob- servation and stimulate facility of expres- sion in the young ; it would be an in- centive to reading something substantial and it would create in the young a rever- ence for the past which would advance rather than retard their future.
All this would help to dispel an ignorance which, at times is truly humiliating. Is it too much to ask or expect that our Society and the Woman's Branch of that Society should zealously and gener- ously contribute for such obviously com- mendable ends? Several gentlemen then address- ed the meeting.
Me Corkill expressed a deep interest in the Society, and said that when he received the notice of the an- nual meeting he felt that he must attend. McCorkill tendered his services in any possible capacity in forwarding the work. In allus- ion to the historical column in The News he said when he open- ed that paper he had acquired the habit of looking at that column first.
Taylor the Secretary of the Brome County Society, next spoke, bringing greetings from the sister Society and regrets from the Hon.
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Taylor told of the work done in Brome, and spoke of the history of his comi- ty now under course oT pro- duction and expressed his apprec- iation of the good beginning made in Missisquoi. Nye spoke of the ad- visability of interesting the chil- dren in the Society and its aims.
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Smith, after a humor- ous allusion to Mr. McCorkill's admission of reading the News spoke of old time Philips- burg, of which he is a native. William Meade Pattison one of the founders of the Society, and despite his years, one of its most active supporters, spoke very interestingly of Caldwell's Manor, an old-time establishment in the western part of the countv, the very location of which has al- most faded from the minds of men. Sawyer, an old resi- dent of Stanbridge, 90 years of age. Hunter and Wilfred Dion also spoke briefly.
The election of officers was then proceeded with as follows: Robinson, seconded by G. Baker that the president and secretary comprise a committee to revise the list of local officials as may be found necessary. The question of finances was then considered, and after a lengthy discussion it was moved by the Rev.
Robinson, sec- onded by E. Watson that the annual membership fee be increas- ed from twenty-five cents to one dollar to provide finances to meet the annual charges of the Society. There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned. Early History of Dunham. From the News Report. The attendance, although not large, was representative and considerable interest was shown in the affairs of the society. The President of the Society, Mr.
Noyes of Cowans- ville, was present and presided, and in his opening address dealt fully with the society's history, and showed clearly the advan- tages of preserving such local historical date as yet remained ex- tant. Noyes gave a very in- teresting address and was well received. At the conclusion of his address the President introduced the sec- retary, Mr. Jones, of Bedford, who spoke of the plans and aims of the society in con- nection with its work in each municipality and gave a very gen- eral invitation to everyone to make use of the historical notes columns in making public any in- teresting facts known to them.
Jones, also, alluded to some in- teresting facts touching the earl- ier days of Dunham, such as the location of the county seat at Dunham at one time, and the building of the first cheese fac- tory in the Dominion of Canada here. At the conclusion of Mr. Jones' address, the President call- ed upon the speaker of the even- ing.
Senator Baker, who was a native of Dunham. Baker spoke of many interesting, episodes of early Dunham, and lo- cated the site of the registry office of the county before its re- moval to Bedford, Mr. Baker re- ferred to the comparative import- ance of Dunham and spoke of Bedford, the present seat as be- ing of mushroom growth. As an evidence of Mr. Baker's interest in the society and its aims, it is an interesting fact to mention in passing that he had driven from Bolton expressly to attend the meeting.
Baker's interesting address, Messrs. Asa Ry- kert and Mr. Joseph Baker spoke, all referring to Dunham's early historv and expressed their inter- est in the society's work. The following ladies wer. Several interesting relics were exhibited by some of the gentle- men present, such as copies of newspapers bearing dates from to , several prize lists of the Missisquoi Agricultural Soc- iety if to ' A notarial- copy of original grant of the lands in Dunham to the Hon.
Thomas Dunn and his associates in At the close of the meeting a considerable number of those present availed themselves of the opportunity of becoming members of the societv. Its Origin and Meaning. At odd intervals, for a consider- able period of time, there has been enquiry as to the origin and the meaning of the word Missisquoi a word which has given name to a County of this Province, and a bay and river which lie partly in and partly outside its territory. A more lively outbreak has oc- curred during the past year, which has reached the stage of antiquarian discussion, presumed- ly the court of last report.
But, after all has been said and writ- ten, it can scarcely be claimed that the shreds of history brought into service have made the de- cision any more conclusive or more generally acceptable. Con- jecture, inference, comparison and tradition, it appears likelv, must continue in the future, as they have in the past, to be the chief support of each theory advanced for the name. And singly, or all together, they are as likely to be false as true, as untenable as convincing. The name is striking and peculiar, attributes which na- turally excite the curiosity of antiquarian minds.
It is admitted- ly of Indian origin, but interest centres in the effort to know whe- ther it was a selection, and by whom, or an accident, and how, or a growth and under what Cir- cumstances. It is to begin at the beginning. It may not be a high ambition in a worldly sense. The sordid man may even call it trivial, but can anything rightly be called trivial which at- tracts the critical attention of a considerable number of cultured men and women. At all events there is a natural curiosity which deserves to be satisfied and in the attempt local and even general history may be uncovered, which may add to the stock of general information, of which the world can never have too much.
The several names and mean- ings of the word " Missisquoi," most generally discussed, if not accepted, are as follows: Old Squaw, or Great or Large Woman. Mississagua name of an In- dian tribe. These names have been written about more conspiciously in re- cent days, by His Lordship, Judge Girouard of the Supreme Court of Canada, who has an estab- lished reputation as an antiqu- arian student and author, and Messrs. John Reade, the clever writer of the weekly series of articles in each of the Saturday's publication of the Daily Gazette, Montreal, under the title " Old and New," Wm.
Watson, of Dunham, whose critical studies of literary subjects eminently fit him for an- tiquarian work, Mention mip-ht also be made of Mr. Mar- tin, an intelligent Dunham farmer who wrote in the St. Johns News a few years ago, that some sixtv years before he had been taught that Missisquoi was an Indian name meaning " Much Water Fowl. I shall take first the paper of Judge Girouard, which appeared in the September number , of the Bulletin des Recherches Historiques Quebec, because, apart from its comprehensive character through grouping and discussing several theories it was the beginning of the recent inter- est in the name, fie has discover- ed some new material and has opened the door for fresh conjec- ture.
The great charm of his ar- ticle is lessened by translation, but that is a necessity which must be conceded to the Society's members seeing that but few could probably read it in the or- iginal. The paper is as follows: Louis that I was leaving the field of historical re- search, and this I may say here, in order to devote myself fully to my always increasing 1 judicial la- bors, I was far from foreseeing that I should so soon return for the discovery of the origin of an Indian name of almost insignifi- cant importance, which, however, seemed to have excited for sev- eral months past, the keen inter- est of antiquaries on the other side of the frontier.
I have been unable to resist the pleasure of responding to a seeker of Worcest- er, Mass. Hverybody knows that it is Indian as is the origin of the names of several rivers, lakes and localities which we have preserved, for there is no doubt that each native tribe had a geography of its own, tracing back to a more or less remote period.
To-day, as the languages of the Indian tribes disappear, slowly, it is true, but surely, the Hurons as we shall point out later, being a striking example the unpublished dictionar- ies French-Indian and vice versa of the old missionaries, among others those of Father Aubin, S. Francis from to and similar mission- aries of the different tribes, are of great value from an histovi: The Can- adian public has always been so indifferent in respect to the abori- gines of this country that Father Butin, missionary at Sault Saint Louis, a man of learning, was un- able to find a publisher for his history of the Indians of his mis- sion, closely connected though it is with that of Montreal.
This he has admitted to me. The Archiv- es Department ought to buy those precious manuscripts. From what tribe did the name of Missisquoi come? To what dia- lect does it belong? To facilitate the solution of the problem I in- vestigated, at first, the different authentic methods of spelling the name. The archives, and the old maps reproduced by Justin Winsor and Faillon, among others a map of 3, Faillon p. The name must, however, have been known to the French long before. Another official do- cument written in English in , and reproduced at length by John P.
That was the English pronunciation of the old name Missisquoy. We also find in the old Revised Statutes of Low- er Canada in an Act estab- lishing the electoral divisions of Lower Canada, passed in , 9, Geo. Finally in , when Lower Can- ada was divided into districts, the orthography was changed, and the legislature for the first time, I be- lieve, adopted that of Missisquoi, which has invariably been follow- ed since.
It has been perpetuated by the Consolidated Statutes of Lower Canada of , the Brit- ish North American Act of , as well as by all the modern dic- tionaries, maps and text books of geography. But, after all, what is the mean- ing of the name? A stranger to the Indian idioms I have applied to the missionaries of the dif- ferent tribes and to the antiquar- ians of the district, and it will be seen that it has not been an easy task to reach a satisfactory con- clusion. I have asked from them all. My first reply was from Mr. Noyes, of Cowansville, Que.
I quote it in full: I have " been trying for some time to " run it to earth, and have pretty " well satisfied myself, but in " such matters one must have an " open mind. When one has to ' rely largely on tradition there ' is always an element of doubt, " even in the best considered theory. The definitions given al- 1 lege Indian origin, but Indian is " an indefinite term in such mat- ' ters. One wants to know the: The locality of " Missisquoi Bay, from which the " county is named, was frequent- " ed by the Iriquois and Algon- " quins and possibly by the Hur- " ons and must have been christ- " enecl something by them.
I am 11 told that the first syllable of ' Mississippi and Missouri rivers " admittedly Indian names " means water, and if true helps ' ' my belief as to the name of Mis- " sisquoi. The definitions, so far "as I know, are two, at least 1 those advocated in print. Missisquoi Bay from the " earliest days, was, and still is, ' famous for the large quantity " and variety of its water fowl, " being on the highway of the " migratory fowls between their " northern summer and southern " winter homes.
Indian names are " largely adopted from their hab- " its as to food and war. Missis- " qnoi was a place to which they " resorted to hunt and fish, ac- " cording to tradition. The early settlers relate " that the flocks of fowl at cer- " tain seasons near the bay were 1 so large and dense that the sun " would be obscured as though " darkened by a cloud. There " were ne natural marks about 1 ' the bay of so distinctive a char- " acter as to suggest a name.
In ' ' addition to the foregoing, a very 1 ' old man of the County wrote in " a local paper some years ago, 11 that he was taught some sixty " years before that Missisquoi " was an Indian name meaning " Much Water Fowl. Thus we have ' tradition, presumptions and In- ' dian traits in accord.
I can " find neither tradition nor cir- " cumstance in its support. It " may have been inferred from a ' broad pronunciation, Misses ; ' Squaw Misses being the ordin- " ary country name for Mistress: But the spelling of ;1 to-day is not that of the old ;i time. Three quarters of a cen- 1 tury ago, and before, and even ' for some time after, it was ;i spelled Missiskoui. Papers in " the Dominion Archives show " that in it was spelled Mis- " sisquie.
It is only about half a " century since the present name ' received statutory endorsement. Being " on the war route between the " St. Lawrence and the New Eng- " land settlements, it must have " had a distinctive name. I did not dare " to put my feeble French on re- " cord in a periodical submitted "to so many scholarly eyes.
Noyes adds, under the non de plume of Wayside Warbler, the fol- lowing' " There is an o ; ld text book re- " cently placed in my hands which " tells a story of its own. It was " printed in the Eastern Town- " ships in its younger days, as a " text book for the English " schools of the Province, and its " cover bears the title " Geo- " graphy and History of Lower " Canada, Designed for the use " of schools, by Zadock Thomp- " son, A.
In that Geography, " the County of Missisquoi is cal- " led Missisko as to which I find " the following foot-note touching " upon a still debatable matter. It afterwards " became the name of the coun- " ty. Noyes, given by him is also borne out by the traditions of the inhabitants. Then Ernest Racicot, Esq.
Even to-day wild " geese and duck, in their migra- " tions from the south to the " north in the spring and from the " north to the south in the aut- " umn, make a halt at Missis- " quoi bay, where the hunters lie " in wait for them. Former- " ly when the bay was surrounded ' with woods, and frequented " only at intervals of time bv the " Indians, those birds must, " without doubt, have gone there 11 and stopped there, in their jour- " neyings in still greater numbers.
The syllable ' quoi' " which has been written several ' ways, Koi-Kow-quoi, etc. All that is Indian. It " is probable that before the ar- " rival of the French at the com- " mencement of the iyth centurv, " all the lake, now Champlain , " to the south of the bay had an " Indian name, probably Missis- " quoi, or some name of that kind.
He believ- ed it was Algonquin. But another, a missionary to the Algonquins, for a great many vears, informs me that Missisquoi read Missis- kaw for purposes of etymology , is not Algonquin. The Ottawa River Indians called it old Kissis- ipi, the great river, which receiv- ed many tributaries. Must we see in it the word squaw, woman, thus preserved in English, and conclude that there was in Missis- quoi some extraordinary woman. I was referred to a Priest of Huron descent, liv- ing at Mastai, near Quebec, who told me that the word was not Huron.
Their vil- lage is not very distant from the bay in question. Tanguay, Reper- toire, 8, says those Indians lived in different parts of the country, even of the continent, apart from residing at lake St. He wrote me as follows: Noyes, to whom I forward- ed that revelation is not convinc- ed that it is correct, preferring his own, " Much Water Fowl," " Still," he says, " I have an open mind. He says that Missis- quoi river is full of boulders, ra- pids, and falls.
This seems to me to settle the question. It is the river which gives its. And then, the tradition of 75 years, invoked by Mr. Noy- es, is far from being old ; is quite insufficient to explain a name which runs back nearly two centuries. Finally, it is not in accord with the Indian languages, which are known. I dislike to disturb a belief, which, after a partial though not iinfair discussion of conflicting views, so eminent a jurist and so distinguished an antiquarian de- clares to be settled.
It looks like a case wherein the tri- bunal-has given judgment in favor of a party not in the record, and whose claims for considera- tion merit discussion contradict- oirement before the rest of the claimants are summarily put out of court. Naturally, I hesitate to dissent from so high an opinion. But then, it is only after dis- cussion we can approximate the truth in debateable matters and this question I venture to, think is still debateable. The river could not be navigated even with canoes, so full was it of rapids, shallows,, bars and waterfalls.
It is not a large stream at its best. It was outside any line of communica- tion between Indian tribes north or south, east or west, even if navigation had been possible. The rugged character and topographi- cal peculiarities of the land, through which it ran were such as to deter occupation or iise as a hunting ground or fishing place.
And nearer home there was an abundance of game and fish the procuring of which required less exertion. There has ' never been found, as there has been found, elsewhere, anything to indicate that the Indians ever occupied hunted or fought in the section of country, either in Canada or Ver- mont, through which the river passes, at least within the past couple of centuries. In other plac- es frequented of old by Indians, there have been unearthed wea- pons indicating early occupation in some form.
Nothing of the kind has been found in the nar- row valley of the Missisquoi or in its proximity. Even if an oc- casional Indian purposely or through accident penetrated t'nc then useless land so far as hunters fishers and fighters were concerned, through which the river flowed, it is little likely that the river was so markedly distinguished from scores of other rivers in the vic- inity, as to warrant the untutor- ed savage being so struck by it as to give it a name. The learned Judge is mistaken when he says that the Indian Vil- lage of St.
Thomas de Pierreville " is not very distant from the bay in question. That village is about as near Quebec as Missisquoi bay. The country between ''that village and the bay is traversed by many streams some of which are as large and even larger than the Missisquoi river. There were rivers and swamps to pass, moun- tains and hills to surmount, and the object obtained, the advan- tages for hunting and fishing were no greater, possibly not so good, as in the immediate vicin- ity of their own home village.
No one has ever had the temerity to pretend that the Indians nun';- ed or fished for a market or for sport. It was their daily food they wanted and which they wanted with the least outlay of pyhsical effort. Then, it must be remembered, that the Abenaki Indians were new comers in this Province of Canada. Their original habitat E. Vice-President Mlssisquoi Historical Society. Parkinan thus located them in several of his books, and further informs us that it was only some time after King Philip's war in New England that any portion of them settled in this province at or near Que- bec.
The bay must have been known ,'to the In- dians long before the Abenaki, towards the end of the lyth cen- tury came to the vicinity of Que- bec. Why should these new im- portations, who only wandered from their fresh location when led by French officers, rush into the nomenclature of earth's waste places? Further, there is nothing related of the habits of the tribe to warrant belief that they took enough interest in anything to start naming rivers and bays, nor is it any more likely that they would venture a second time into a country which promised so lit- tle advantage to them as the Mis- si squoi valley, which was so dif- ficult of access, and which, as al- ready pointed out, was oil the na- tural and well known routes of travel for war or game.
Nor can I accept without ques- tion the statement that Missis- quoi is derived from the Indian word " Masipskoick. Indian names, more frequently than otherwise, result from some incident or pec- ularity connected with their ab- original life, and usually of a striking character, or some pecu- liarity of topographical forma- tion, which has attracted the par- ticular attention of people more anxious for landmarks for future use than greedy to make their mark as geographers. Such is the general practice of aboriginal people the world over since the world began. The fact that " Masipskoick" means Pointe de Caillou or Pebble or Flint Point, is, to my mind an argument against Missisquoi being derived from that alleged Abenaki word.
There are no pebbles or flint around or about Missisquoi Ba- or other stones in sufficient quan- tity or strikingly different from other stones in other places in the Eastern Townships to be remark- able or to attract special atten- tion. The quarry ' is too remote from the water, and at that time had too little prominence to cause no- tice by a people not in the quar- ry business.
The Abenaki Indians, if they took the overland route, which is unlikely, would have passed many rivers with as great, an abundance of pebbles or flint stones as the Missisquoi river, and stone formations more pro- minent than the quarry referred to, and to none do they appear to have vouchsafed a distinctive Indian name. If they took the na- tural and most feasible route from their homes. The Indian meaning of " Masipskoick" may be accepted as that which is given, but it does not follow when so accepted that Missisquoi is derived from that word.
Judge Girouard will, no doubt, find consolation for my respectful divergence from his views in the letter of Mr. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Learn more about Amazon Prime. Joey Chemong is like any other young man, except for the fact that he is living the worst life imaginable. Joey must grapple with an unforgiving and unrelenting stream of memoir cliches as he attempts to find everyone's goal of "self-actualization".
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