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Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. For example, Derks found that emoticons are used less often in task-oriented contexts than socio-emotional CMC contexts. Further examples are typical gender differences in the expression of emotions. Women use emoticons more often to convey solidarity and reassertion of positive feelings, whereas men express sarcasm and teasing with emoticons Utz, In summary, a consensus has emerged on the nature of the important features of CMC.
First, self-disclosure in CMC is stipulated through a lack of social cues. Second, Internet users substitute nonverbal information content at least partially with emoticons. However, research efforts suffer presently from a strong Eurocentric bias. Furthermore, there are few studies that explicitly investigate communication patterns in internet forums. Against this background, two hypotheses were developed: Members of internet forums who belong to high-context cultures disclose fewer intimacies in internet forum discussions than members who belong to low-context cultures.
Members of internet forums from high-context cultures use more emoticons in internet forum discussions than members from low-context cultures. H1 is based on the premise that a series of studies of low-context cultures have shown that intimate information is disclosed frequently in CMC.
H2 relates to social information processing theory, stating that during CMC, nonverbal communication content will be substituted by emoticons. This effect is likely to be especially pronounced for members of high-context cultures, who draw more heavily on nonverbal means of communication than their low-context counterparts. General design Based on a review of prior cross-cultural studies, a content analysis was conducted to examine the re?
The unit of analysis was postings in internet forums.
Sample German and Indian internet forums were selected to test the hypotheses in the current research, as the former represents the German culture with its low-context communication and the latter representing the Indian culture on the basis of its high-context communication Badrudin, ; Gudykunst et al. Drawing appropriate samples was complicated by differences in Internet usage between Germany and India. These differences also translate into different user populations.
In Germany, the Internet is used by all parts of the population L? Consequently, Indian Internet users are not representative of the larger population. This is important, since research indicates that despite high overall levels of collectivism, young and educated Indians are less collectivistic than their fellow countrymen Mishra, This implies that the high-context cultural orientation of Indian Internet users should be less pronounced. Using Google Groups, a probability sample of German and Indian freely accessible groups was drawn.
One posting was randomly selected from each group. However, some postings that possessed the following attributes were removed from the sample: Those that were not in English or German, as this was necessary due to the linguistic background of the coders. Those that were incomprehensible — for example, postings that contained incomplete sentences, or were too brief less than a sentence , or too long more than words or contained pictures. Those where the names of the authors could not be established unanimously as Indian or German by the coders, as this would assure that only those authors that belonged to the target group would be included in the study.
Coding scheme For more objective and quantitative measurement, all constructs were de? In the current research, intimacy was measured in terms of a breadth and a depth component. Depth or intimacy was operationalized via the intimacy scale developed by Post et al. In accordance with G? A statement was de? Based on the work of Chelune and Harper and Harper , a set of coding instructions was drafted see Appendix B.
Coders and inter-coder reliability As in many cross-cultural studies, bilingual coders who are familiar with the target cultures are crucial to ensure the validity of? Therefore, four coders who could interpret both German and English were recruited. Two coders were German nationals and two were of Indian origin. All coders were trained until the majority of sampling units were coded congruently. Points of disagreement between the coders were re-examined and discussed. In the main study, inter-coder reliability was assessed with the intra-class correlation coef?
The ICCs were calculated for single measures by the two-random effects model using absolute agreement de? Due to the unequivocal operationalization of emoticons, the inter-coder agreement was 0. In reference to self-referential statements and intimacy, the respective ICCs were 0. Since ICCs above 0. Results H1 predicted that members of internet forums in high-context cultures would disclose fewer intimacies than members of internet forums in low-context cultures.
An independent sample t-test con? As stated above, this hypothesis was operationalized using two dimensions, the number of self-referential statements breadth and the level of intimacy depth. This initial impression was supported through computation of the data via SPSS: Table 2 summarizes the most critical information of this hypothesis validation; note that due to SPSS internal t-test 2-Tail processing, signi? Hypothesis 2 posited that a high-context culture background would foster the usage of emoticons in internet forums. This hypothesis was also supported by the data.
In comparison to the German sample, the number of emoticons was signi? As will be demonstrated below, especially this validation of Hypothesis 2 has several implications, ranging from contributions to actual research debates to practical CMC applications. Discussion and conclusion The original purpose of this study was to research the in? Both assumptions were supported by empirical evidence.
The results have implications for several? This suggests that prior research on CMC was focused too narrowly on samples in western cultural contexts, thereby missing a crucial variable moderating the? Apart from this importance for CMC applications and applied research which will be discussed further below , these? Findings like the distinctively high amount of self-referential statements in German postings show astonishing congruence with patterns observed within the general recent culture research, especially the important work on cultural dimensions initially Hofstede Implications for applied research and CMC development The?
The question is, of course, whether this is caused by differences in culture-derived communication styles or is dependent on other factors, especially economic ones. Thus, while the generally still non-western level of economic development in high-context cultures certainly is an in? Moreover, systematic training in the appropriate use of surrogates for nonverbal communication, such as emoticons, might help to overcome inhibitions to impart private information via CMC in high-context cultures.
Also, adaptions in user interface design see below can be an option allowing for more acceptability of such systems in high-contextual cultures such as India or China. Similarly, the validation of H1 of this study regarding culture as a variable in self-disclosure can be of interest for internet-based social research, for instance in questionnaire-based research implementations. With this information present, researchers can adapt their strategies, for instance by using more subtle research designs for members of such cultures or even use surrogates for nonverbal communication like emoticons instead of a pure textual design.
Implications for application development A culture-derived preference for the use of paralinguistic internet code systems, such as the Indian one, has several other, more speci? Online forum developers, for instance, can use the? Details of the forum software implementation such as the usual lists of forum adaptability options, emoticon usage parameters and scope and graphical design of the emoticons itself can be adapted to the expected cultural background of user groups.
Recent research on user knowledge of emoticons Hartig et al. By adaption of the forum user interface design to facilitate usage and increase the scope of emotion-signifying emoticons — such as broadening the range of emotional semantics accessible — forum developers can design special solutions suited to members of high-contextual cultures, resulting in more acceptance of the respective software. CMC Communication solutions — such as messaging services like Skype or Google Talk — can be tailored to the expectations of members of high-contextual ethnic groups, e.
Other communicational products, services or computer-based educational systems that are either aimed at speci? For instance, the interface design or general structure of ICT-based language learning software could be adapted to culture-induced general communication patterns. This design principle can also be used in choice of learning block backgrounds and structures, e.
Finally, the validations of both research hypotheses could also be of some importance for telecollaborative foreign language learning. Here, students of both languages interact synchronously using instant messaging, synchronous knowledge base design on wiki sites, and instructional dialogues with instructors through e-mails Shu-Mei, General inter-project communication and speci?
Limitations of the study A number of limitations on the present? With emoticons, it has to be noted that although emoticons serve similar functions as nonverbal communication during the communication process, they are not actual nonverbal behaviour.
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Emoticons are deliberate acts of speech, whereas nonverbal communication is characterized by its subconscious nature. Regarding the research design of this study, it has to be emphasized that the selection of respondents could not be controlled. This is an important caveat, since it could be shown that Indian Internet users are likely to have a less pronounced high-context orientation than average Indians.
Therefore, the current research may have well underestimated the impact of culture on CMC. Future research should address this shortcoming by investigating more representative samples. Alternatively, one could operationalize contextuality not as an ecological variable, but as an individual difference variable using Likert-type attitude scales.
Emotikons ALS Parasprachliche Ausdrucksform in Der Online-Kommunikation (German, Paperback)
Finally, future research needs to test whether the current? This could help to disentangle the in? Appendix C Coding Instructions: Emoticons What is an emoticon? Es folgt eine Definition des Begriffs Emotikon, welcher auch neue parasprachliche Ausdrucksformen beinhaltet. Die Smileys werden in einem weiteren Unterpunkt in vier Gruppen geordnet und anhand eines Beispiels aus dem Smiley-Inventar des Instantmessangers ICQ soll gezeigt werden, welche Moglichkeiten zur Uberbruckung parasprachlicher Defizite in der Online-Kommunikation Emotikons bieten - aber auch welche Fehlinterpretation sie zulassen.
Vorangestellte Hypothese dieser Arbeit soll sein, dass die neu verwendeten Zeichen von Benutzern Usern jener Plattformen parasprachliche Hinweise aus der Face-to- Face-Kommunikation in der Online-Kommunikation ersetzen konnen und somit auch metakommunikativ zum Verstandnis einer Aussage beitragen konnen, also etwa einen Scherz oder Ironie anzeigen konnen" Beck Im Schlussteil sollen die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in einem ubergeordneten Kontext Beitrag zur Entkontextualisierung eingeordnet und im Zusammenhang mit der Kanalreduktionsthese verglichen werden.
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