It happened in a crowded saloon, with witnesses calling it self-defense.
A shoemaker by trade, he was accused of horse rustling in Lewiston. He turned himself in to the commander at Fort Lapwai, who sentenced him to work building roads. In the fall of , he was again accused of stealing horses and skipped to Virginia City, where he worked mending harnesses and repairing boots. After he heard about the new vigilante group, he warned Sheriff Plummer. When the vigilantes learned about that, they considered him a spy for the Innocents and put him on their outlaw list. Also on the list was Three-Fingered Jack Gallager, a New Yorker who drifted west, made crime his calling and in a Montana saloon, unwittingly predicted his own demise.
His dark trail started in Denver in where he killed a man. Next stop was Virginia City, where Henry Plummer pinned a deputy sheriff badge on him and made him part of the Innocents gang. When he learned that the Innocents were plotting robbery, he forewarned the victims. When that was discovered, other deputies killed him on Main Street in front of witnesses. None of the killers were convicted. That riled the community and gave birth to a vigilante committee. That same night, the vigilantes met secretly to try the men on their list, agreeing unanimously that there would be only one sentence: All five were marched down the street to the unfinished Virginia City Hotel on Wallace Street and lined up underneath a supporting beam.
Ropes with a hangman noose were thrown over the beam and boxes placed on the floor.see
Timeline of pre-statehood Montana history
Club-Foot was the first to be hanged. Forty-three years later, his bones were dug up and his club foot is now on display under glass in the Thompson Hickman Museum in Virginia City. The worst of the Innocents Gang was probably Boone Helm, who had no qualms about eating his companions when it meant his survival. He was known for his physical strength, being quarrelsome and having a violent temper. In the winter of , they ran into exceptionally cold weather in the mountains of eastern Oregon and were attacked by Indians but survived.
By the time they reached Soda Springs on the Bear River, they ran out of food and were forced to eat their horses. Helm and a man named Burton were stronger than the rest and headed together for Fort Hall. Along the way, Burton gave out and was left at an abandoned cabin. Helm continued but found the old fort abandoned for the winter and no food. He returned to Burton in time to be there when his companion shot himself.
He ate one leg of the body, and then, wrapping up the other in a piece of old shirt, threw it across his shoulder and started on further east. In the fall of , he was on the Fraser River in B. Canadian authorities shipped Helm to Portland where he was locked up and brought to trial for killing a man called Dutch Fred some time back.
All the witnesses however had disappeared and again he escaped justice. But after he joined Plummer in Montana, his days were numbered. In the vigilante court, he kissed the Bible and swore he never killed anyone in his life. Hurrah for Jeff Davis! He valued neither the life of others nor his own. Between October and December , the rate of robberies and murders in and around Alder Gulch increased significantly, and the citizens of Virginia City grew increasingly suspicious of Sheriff Henry Plummer and his associates. Several of the men he hired to accompany him back to Lewiston, Idaho were criminals.
Bill Bunton, the owner of the Rattlesnake Ranch who joined the stage at the ranch, was also complicit in the robbery. Near Horse Prairie, Tilden was confronted by three armed road agents. One of the victims, Leroy Southmayd, reported the robbery and identified the road agents to Bannack sheriff Henry Plummer.
Timeline of pre-statehood Montana history - Wikipedia
Among the seven passengers was John Bozeman. Members of the camp had armed themselves well, and Wagner and Marshland were able to escape by claiming they were just looking for lost horses. Two days later, Wagner and Marshland were both wounded in an unsuccessful attempt to rob the train as it crossed the Continental Divide at Rock Creek. When road agents George Ives and Aleck Carter, whom Holter recognized, discovered Holter was not carrying any significant wealth, they tried to shoot him. He avoided being shot and escaped into the brush.
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At the time Bannack and Virginia City, Montana were part of a remote region of the Idaho Territory; there was no formal law enforcement or justice system for the area. Hundreds of miners from around the area attended the three-day outdoor trial. George Ives was prosecuted by Wilbur F. Sanders, convicted, and hanged on December 21, They included five Virginia City residents, led by Wilbur F. Sanders, and including Major Alvin W. Wall, and Paris Pfouts. The posse was led by vigilante Captain James Williams, the man who had investigated the Nicolas Tiebolt murder.
The vigilantes transported Wagner to Bannack, where he was hanged on January 11, Plummer, Stinson, and Ray were arrested on the morning of January 10, , and summarily hanged. The two youngest members of the gang were said to be spared. One was sent back to Bannack to tell the rest to get out of the area, and the other was sent ahead to Lewiston, Idaho to warn gang members to leave that town.
Lewiston was the connection from the Territory to the world, as it had river steamboats that traveled to the coast at Astoria, Oregon via the Snake and Columbia rivers. Plummer was known to have traveled to Lewiston during the time when he was an elected official in Bannack. The hotel registry records with his signature during this period have been preserved.
Gang member Clubfoot George was hanged at about the same time with Plummer. Robberies to and from the finds around Bannack, Virginia City, and the other upstart mining communities increased markedly in , many of them resulting in murders. What point was there in breaking your back in the mines if all you worked for could be taken at gunpoint? As robberies continued and increased many in the communities began to suspect the attacks were planned and coordinated.
This is a well written story, some details differ a little. The lynching of sheriff Henry Plummer poses one of the most haunting mysteries of the Old West. The story is well-known: The soft-spoken young Easterner proved to be an efficient lawman, yet in he was lynched by vigilantes. Edgerton was describing the mutilation of corpses that had never been discovered! Posterity has expressed little concern that the accused sheriff received no trial. Research of the past three decades, however, suggests that the Montana vigilantes may well have hanged an innocent man.
It is understandable that posterity would trust Dimsdale; he was a pious teacher and editor. And finally, criticism aimed at the vigilantes had been uniformly squelched. The number of murders, the correspondent suggested, could be fewer than , perhaps no more than Decades later, Judge Lew L. William Henry Plummer originally spelled Plumer was born in in Washington County, Maine, the youngest child of a prominent pioneer family. But apparently William Henry shared the adventuresome spirit that had lured his sailing ancestors to such exotic spots as the Canary Islands. In the year-old caught the California gold fever and on April 27 sailed from New York aboard the U.
At precisely midnight on May 21, they steamed into San Francisco. His funds depleted, the eager youth had to take a job in a book store, but after a year he had saved enough to buy ranch and mine in Nevada County about miles northeast of San Francisco. A year later, he traded mine shares for a business in the county seat, and fellow merchants who were impressed by his business integrity persuaded him to run for the position of town marshal and city manager.
Since Nevada City was at the time the third largest settlement in California, the job would offer state prominence. In an election held in May , Plummer won by the narrowest of margins, but it did not take the genteel young merchant long to earn the reputation of a dutiful marshal. The pistols were quietly removed and the two…taken into custody. Some events were local — Anaconda Copper shutting down Butte and thus the state in , forcing the legislature to do its bidding — while others were more international in scope — Otto Heinze trying to corner the copper market and ushering in the Panic of , something that hit Montanans hard.
The state supplied more than 1, men in the Spanish-American War and several of them won the Medal of Honor.
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Those are the stories of Montana, and America, from to I will need this final copy in a PDF format. I also have another book I'd like to do, so if one of you can get this I'll create another project for you if you want. I am sina , I just looking for some experience as a freelancer, I saw your documents, I am expert in photoshop and also illustrating, I have good knowledge also in Ai , let me know if you wanted to talk about it.
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Post Your Contest Quick and easy. Get Tons of Entries From around the world. Award the best entry Download the files - Easy! The email address is already associated with a Freelancer account. Montana Book of Days. Glacier Natural History Association. Missoula Historic Preservation Commission.
Archived from the original on Bozeman and the Gallatin Valley-a History. The Globe Pequeot Press. University of Washington Press. Retrieved 3 October Montana Vigilantes Gold, Guns and Gallows. Utah State University Press. Thirty-sixth United States Congress. Archived from the original PDF on Virginia City, Montana Territory [i.
Related Priests and Prospectors: A History of Montana, Volume Two (Montana History Series Book 2)
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