This has led critics to view the Royal Canadian Navy as being more akin to a brown-water navy. Coffey asserts that Italy's blue-water capabilities do not extend beyond the Mediterranean sea. The Republic of Korea Navy is considered to be a green-water navy. The first postwar overseas naval air facility of Japan was established next to Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport.
The Royal Netherlands Navy has been officially described as a 3rd tier "Medium Global Force Projection Navy" - or a green-water navy with the capacity to project force worldwide with the aid of more powerful maritime allies e. Britain, France and the United States. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific. Retrieved 7 May The Chinese People's Liberation Army at 75" pdf. Strategic Studies Institute, U. Retrieved 17 March Naval Modernisation in South-East Asia: Nature, Causes and Consequences.
Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 16 March Green Water or Blue? Expanding Capabilities, Evolving Roles? Navies and Shipbuilding Industries: Retrieved 30 November The Atlantic Alliance and the Middle East. University of Pittsburgh Press. The New York Times. Korea Envisions Light Aircraft Carrier". Archived from the original on 26 October Archived from the original on Naval ships and warships in the Late Modern period.webdisk.lauren.reclaim.hosting/20112.php
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This page was last edited on 16 September , at Maintenance and logistics at range have high costs, and there might be a saturation advantage over a deployed force through the use of land-based air or surface-to-surface missile assets, diesel-electric submarines , or asymmetric tactics such as Fast Inshore Attack Craft.
The term 'blue-water navy' should not be confused with the capability of an individual ship. For example, vessels of a green-water navy can often operate in blue water for short periods of time. A number of nations have extensive maritime assets but lack the capability to maintain the required sustainable logistic reach.
According to a dictionary definition, blue-water capability refers to an oceangoing fleet able to operate on the high seas far from its nation's homeports.
Some operate throughout the world. Bratton outlined what they termed as "concise criteria" with regard to the definitions of brown, green and blue-water navies. For example, while France and the United States may be considered blue-water navies, he states that the "operational capability and geographic reach of both navies are definitely different. Another definition states that 'brown-water' refers to the littoral areas within nautical miles of the coastline. While 'blue-water' is the ability to project force out to aleast 1, nautical miles beyond the coast.
However, the United States Navy created a new term, green-water navy , to replace the term 'brown-water navy' in US Navy parlance. Despite the above however, there is no agreed definition of the term.
The table below shows the world naval hierarchy according to the classification system by professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg. Since then it has been used by various other experts to illustrate the subject. Historically, and to present day, blue-water navies have tended to establish overseas bases to extend the reach of supply lines, provide repair facilities and enhance the "effective striking power" of a fleet beyond the capabilities provided by the nations homeports.
A base located at choke points in narrow or enclosed seas can be of high value, especially if positioned near, or within striking distance of an enemy's sea lines of communications. These are examples of navies that have been described by various defense experts or academics as being blue-water navies.
Some have successfully used their blue-water capabilities to exercise control on the high seas and from there have projected power into other nations' littoral waters. The People's Liberation Army Navy is subject to a variety of assessments regarding its capabilities. Writing for the US Naval Institute , Dr James Mulvenon believes that "the Chinese navy is still primarily a brown and green-water navy", highlighting problems with replenishment and logistics as key shortcomings in PLAN ambitions of becoming a blue-water capable fleet.
China's ambition towards blue-water capability has received much attention, particularly from the United States Congress  and Department of Defense ,  with both acknowledging that China's primary aim is to project power in the First and Second island chains. The French Navy is recognised as being a blue-water navy by various experts and academics.
The navy operates a single nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle which forms the centrepiece of the Navy's principal expeditionary task group known as the Aeronaval Group. In addition to this, the navy maintains a secondary Amphibious Group known as Le Groupe Amphibie based around the Mistral -class amphibious assault ships. Both these formations are part of the Force d'action navale or Naval Action Force.
The ' Forces sous-marines ' operates four nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and six nuclear-powered fleet submarines.
The navy's operational duties include the protection of French interests abroad and the security of the nation's many overseas departments and territories , as such the Navy undertakes a number of standing commitments worldwide. The Indian Navy is unique among Asian navies, due to its long experience in carrier power projection since Gilboy and Political Scientist Eric Heginbotham, gives the Indian Navy the "leading power projection capability" in the region". The Italian Navy has been categorised as a "regional blue-water navy" in Liu Huaqing 's Memoirs ,  and as a rank three "multi regional power projection navy" by Professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg in Coffey asserted that Italy's blue-water capabilities didn't extend beyond the Mediterranean sea.
The Russian Navy the then Soviet Navy maintained naval forces able to rival those of the United States, however following the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union in , the fleet experienced a severe decline due to lack of funding. Analysts have mentioned that as opposed to the focus on submarine operations in the North Atlantic during the Cold War era, Russia's strategic emphasis has shifted towards the Pacific regions where a rising China and the United States ' Asia-Pacific Pivot ' are potential threats.
Russia maintains a single overseas naval facility in Tartus , Syria , which hosts a Soviet-era naval supply and maintenance facility. The Royal Navy is considered to be a blue-water navy by a number of experts and academics and will most likely cement its position with new naval ships. Naval War College identifies the Royal Navy's tasks as fighting wars, conducting distant expeditions, maintaining good order at sea and preventing and deterring conflict.
The United States Navy is widely seen as a blue-water navy by experts and academics. The USN also maintains a continuous deployment of nine expeditionary strike groups that embark a Marine Expeditionary Unit with an Aviation Combat Element on amphibious warfare ships. The US Navy has shown countless examples of its blue-water combat capabilities and has the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward areas during peacetime, and rapidly respond to regional crises.
Some green-water navies have ambitions towards the development of blue-water capabilities. While considered to be a green-water navy,  the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is undergoing transition to develop blue-water capabilities. The Republic of Korea Navy also has ambitions to develop blue-water capabilities. The Brazilian Navy is experiencing a "shift in maritime priorities" with ambitions of developing a blue-water navy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on The operating areas of maritime forces range from the deep waters of the open oceans known colloquially as blue water.
Retrieved July 15, Retrieved 30 April The Great Wall at Sea: Naval Modernisation in South-East Asia: Nature, Causes and Consequences. Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific. Retrieved 17 March These are challenges we all have, and we need to work together to ensure that the sea lanes are secure. A Handbook of Military Strategy and Tactics. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. A Guide for the Twenty-First Century.
Retrieved 15 December Navies and Shipbuilding Industries: Retrieved 30 November Assessing China's Naval Power: China's Rising Sea Power: Naval Strategy and Operations in Narrow Seas.
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