A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)


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Arq Bras Endrocrinol Metab ; 52 4: Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books; Executive Summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program NCEP expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. JAMA ; The use of the framingham equation to predict myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected patients: HIV Med ; 7 4: Regional differences of insulin action in adipose tissue: Acta Physiol Scand ; 1: Leptin secretion from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in women.

Diabetes ; 47 6: Subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 5: Subcutaneous lipectomy causes a metabolic syndrome in hamsters. Rev Nutr ; 21 3: Braz J Infect Dis ; 13 2: Body-fat abnormalities in patients with HIV: Rev Inst Med trop S Paulo ; 57 2: J Clin Densitom ; 13 2: HIV lipodystrophy case definition study group. An objective case definition of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected adults: Lancet ; Comparing the ability of anthropometric indicators in identifying metabolic syndrome in HIV patients. PLoS One ; 11 2: Therefore, the EEAS will continue to promote observance of international humanitarian law, of fair and impartial administration of justice and of equality before the law.

Furthermore, the majority of them have not received any pay for four months. When will the Commission be able to provide financial assistance to those laid off? What influence is the unrestricted importation of machines from China having on themachine market? In the future programming period the Commission will encourage the regional authorities of Podkarpackie to strengthen support for areas suffering from severe structural deficiencies. Besides, the adaptation to change of workers, enterprises and entrepreneurs is one of the investment priorities proposed in the future ESF regulation.

When, as a result of her opposition activities, she was expelled from university and started to receive threats, she decided to leave Minsk, travelling first to Poland, where she was granted political asylum, and then to Sweden. In order to escape constant harassment by law enforcement agencies, she left Belarus in the summer of The Commission is not aware of the circumstances behind the case referred to by the Honourable Member.

Likewise individual return procedures are managed at national level and national authorities are obliged to check that all relevant requirements provided for in EU legislation, including respect of the principle of non-refoulement, are fulfilled. The Commission is not an appeals body on asylum or return issues. This task is in the first place performed by national courts. As Guardian of Union law, the Commission may, however, intervene if it can be clearly demonstrated that a Member State has infringed rights accorded to individuals under Union law. The facts referred to by the Honourable Member do not contain sufficient indication that this is the case.

The Commission is therefore not in a position to take further action or to address a recommendation to the Swedish authorities. Die langfristigen Gesundheitsfolgen durch Verzehr dieses Mutanten sind bislang noch unbekannt. Der Mutantenfisch ist zudem angeblich kaum von echtem Lachs zu unterscheiden.

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EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Teilt die Kommission die Bedenken gegen mutierten Lachs? Wie kann sichergestellt werden, dass nicht alleine die Finanzkraft der Biotech-Unternehmen bestimmt, was wir in Zukunft essen werden? Soll Fisch auch in Zukunft noch den gesunden bzw. Media reports have revealed that the USA is on the verge of presenting the world for the first time with a genetically modified fish. This is a mutated salmon, which has the potential not only to devastate wild salmon stocks, but also to endanger human health.

This biotech industry mutant is particularly dangerous because it would smooth the way for other transgenic fish and meat varieties. The biotech industry has already invested a huge amount in lobbying governments to approve their genetically modified breeding schemes. The long-term repercussions on our health of eating these mutants are still not known. What is more, these super-salmon could wipe out whole stocks of their wild cousins if one of them or their eggs were to escape into the wild.

Furthermore it seems there is practically no difference in appearance between the mutant fish and a real salmon. Does the Commission share the misgivings regarding mutated salmon? Will fish continue in the future to be regarded as a healthy foodstuff, or at least one which is safe to eat? What does the Commission think and how, should this be necessary, does it propose to ensure that this is so? It is now proposed that the aforementioned fish be declared safe to eat — on the basis of studies funded by the very firms that developed the genetically modified animal in the first place.

In the light of this conflict of interest, does the Commission consider that any trust at all can be placed in these studies? The European Union has set in law its own strict safety criteria for risk assessment and authorisation of GMOs, which are fully independent of third countries' authorisation procedures. Furthermore, the GMO legislation ensures that consumers are comprehensively informed on the presence of GMOs in feed and food, allowing them to make an informed purchasing choice.

It is Commission policy not to comment on the internal affairs of third countries. Could the Commission please provide details of all the mission costs of the Commissioners and Commission staff who attended the meeting in Davos? Can the Commission also please confirm the means of transport by which the Commissioners travelled to Davos, and if it was by chartered aircraft what was the justification for choosing this method over a scheduled flight? In addition, some missions were not only to Davos and back more destinations combined resulting in a higher cost.

De Europese Commissie heeft aangegeven het aantal emissierechten te willen verminderen om zo kunstmatig de prijs van de emissierechten te verhogen. De EU wil bepalen hoeveel CO 2 bedrijven in de toekomst mogen uitstoten. Wat waren de redenen van de Commissie om af te wijken van haar oorspronkelijke positie ten opzichte van handel in emissierechten? Er is geen reden waarom het niet mogelijk zou zijn het ETS in de toekomst beter te laten werken, als de politieke wil daartoe er is.

The Commission has stated that it wishes to reduce the number of emission certificates in order to artificially raise their price. The EU wishes to determine how much CO 2 businesses may emit in future. Why has the Commission decided to abandon its original position on emissions trading? It is not expected to have dramatic effects on the carbon price, but rather to have a stabilising effect in the short term;. To this debate belongs the discussion about potential automatic stabilisation mechanisms for taking into account uncertainties such as those referred to in the question.

There is no reason why it should not be possible to make the ETS work better in the future if there is political will to do so. An economic impact assessment? Zo ja, hoe reageert de Commissie op de bevindingen van dit wetenschappelijk onderzoek? Is de Commissie het met de PVV eens dat deze methodes in acht moeten worden genomen alvorens over te gaan op dure en onrendabele investeringen in wind- en zonne-energie?

Zo neen, waarom niet? De Commissie is bekend met het rapport dat in de vraag wordt vermeld. Het gaat dan met name om bepaalde nationale steunregelingen voor hernieuwbare energie. The article indicates that greenhouse gas emissions can also be reduced by using fossil fuels more efficiently and switching from coal to gas. Does the Commission agree with the PVV that these methods should be taken into account before resorting to costly and unviable investments in wind power and solar energy? If not, why not? The Commission is familiar with the report mentioned in the question.

The key point in this debate is that EU Renewable energy policy contributes to climate policy but also diversifies and improves the security of EU energy supplies. As such, it does not contradict energy efficiency policy and targets. There are instances where the instruments used to achieve the renewable energy targets have not been efficient, in particular certain national renewable energy support schemes. It is for this reason that the Commission is preparing guidance on such schemes, to ensure that renewable energy targets are reached as cost effectively as possible.

Politica di rigore finanziario e approccio americano. In Europa, al contrario, si prosegue nell'attuare una severa politica di rigore finanziario e di tagli alla spesa che sembra peggiorare le condizioni dell'economia, far perdere PIL ed aumentare la disoccupazione. Non ritiene il Consiglio che il perseguimento di una tale politica di rigore possa produrre effetti deleteri per l'economia europea?

Come si spiega il Consiglio che il medesimo problema venga affrontato dal sistema americano in modo diametralmente opposto rispetto a quello europeo? Con quali motivazioni si esclude che una maggiore spesa ed un innalzamento del tetto del debito possano avere conseguenze positive sull'economia europea? Non ritiene il Consiglio che il semplice vantaggio di alcuni Stati membri non sia una motivazione sufficiente per perseverare in una politica di rigore dimostratasi sinora fallimentare? L'aggiustamento di bilancio deve continuare sulla via di una strategia di risanamento differenziato favorevole alla crescita, anche in considerazione di elevati livelli di debito e di sfide a medio e lungo termine per le finanze pubbliche.

Il Consiglio non ha discusso le altre questioni sollevate dall'onorevole parlamentare. To cope with the crisis and boost its economy and employment, political agreement has been reached in the USA to raise the debt ceiling without reference to spending cuts. More funds will be available therefore to finance works, projects and purchasing which, it is assumed, will help ward off the effects of the crisis and kick-start consumption and the American economy.

The European Union, on the other hand, is pursuing a rigorous policy of financial austerity and spending cuts, which appears to be producing even worse economic conditions, falling GDP and rising unemployment. How does the Council explain the fact that the USA is tackling the very same problem in a diametrically opposed way to the EU? While some Member States may benefit from the financial austerity policy surely this alone does not constitute sufficient grounds for persevering with this policy which has thus far proved to be disastrous.

Does the Council agree? The Council also underlined that a prerequisite for growth and adjustment was to continue on the path of fiscal consolidation and structural reforms and to reverse financial fragmentation, to improve financing conditions for investors, especially in the vulnerable countries, and to encourage the inflow and efficient allocation of capital to support adjustment. This process will begin with the completion, strengthening and implementation of the new enhanced economic governance, as well as the adoption of the Single Supervisory Mechanism and of the new rules on recovery and resolution and on deposit guarantees.

This will be made possible by the establishment of a single resolution mechanism. Furthermore, the Council emphasised that sound and sustainable public finances were an essential prerequisite for market confidence and macroeconomic stability, and hence for growth. Non ritiene la Commissione che il perseguimento di una tale politica di rigore possa produrre effetti deleteri per l'economia europea? Come si spiega la Commissione che il medesimo problema venga affrontato dal sistema americano in modo diametralmente opposto rispetto a quello europeo?

Non ritiene la Commissione che il semplice vantaggio di alcuni Stati membri non sia una motivazione sufficiente per perseverare in una politica di rigore dimostratasi sinora fallimentare? In my view, the prime reason for this financial austerity lies in the resolve of certain EU Member States which, owing to their purchase of government bonds from countries with less liquidity, are now heavily exposed and want to withdraw from this position as fast as possible. How does the Commission explain the fact that the USA is tackling the very same problem in a diametrically opposed way to the EU?

Does the Commission agree? In its Annual Growth Survey AGS , the Commission is advocating a balanced approach to ensuring fiscal sustainability, macro-financial stability and to engender sustainable growth and jobs.


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The Commission supports a differentiated fiscal consolidation to be implemented in such a way that it minimises negative short-term effects on growth. To restore lending to the real economy, macro-financial stability is indispensable and the turbulences in the sovereign debt market have to be contained;. At micro level, financial repair has to continue in particular in the banking sector, but also new sources of funding have to be promoted;. Structural reforms are necessary to improve framework conditions for growth and to strengthen the adjustment capacity of our economies;. Efficient and effective public administration is necessary to implement the difficult reforms in the current challenging economic conditions.

For countries at risk of losing market access the option of delaying consolidation, let alone increasing their debt levels, does not exist. There is hence no credible alternative to a growth-friendly fiscal consolidation that is differentiated across countries, depending on their circumstances. Quest'ultima disposizione in particolare contraddice l'articolo 5, secondo cui: HRW believes this could allow judges and legislators to disregard those treaties on the pretext that they contradict the new constitution.

Other worrying provisions include the following: What support, if any, is it giving to civil society groups and other relevant groups? In addition to political dialogue, EU financial instruments are also used to support the democratic transition, in different fields, for example the reform of the judicial sector, technical and political support to the work of the National Constituent Assembly through UNDP and in which the European Parliament is also involved , provision of technical assistance and expertise through the Council of Europe. In line with Joint Communications on the new Neighbourhood Policy, support to civil society is a priority of EU engagement with Tunisia; civil society is increasingly involved in our political dialogue and financing to civil society is being reinforced.

The UK Government is undertaking a review to assess whether it should opt out of some EU measures relating to police and judicial cooperation. The Association of Chief Police Officers in the UK has said that only 29 of the measures assist law enforcement in practice. A significant number of the measures are said to be effectively dormant and unused, while others have been overtaken and subsumed into subsequent agreements.

What steps are being taken by the Commission to review the measures with the aim of streamlining procedures, reducing unnecessary bureaucracy and ensuring that priority is attached to those shown to be of most value to the tasks of combating terrorism and fighting crime? Why was the issue of returning the wreckage raised only on the sidelines of the summit?

Europees Ontwikkelingsfonds EOF tussenrapportage. In dat kader de volgende vragen:. In Zuid-Afrika ongeveer de helft. Kan de Commissie aangeven waarom dat zo is? De financiering van dit initiatief in de beide regio's en van de resterende activiteiten van het regionale programma in Zuidelijk Afrika werd in vastgelegd. De Commissie heeft de nodige stappen ondernomen om de fondsen te gebruiken of over te hevelen naar landen die daar specifiek behoefte aan hebben in Beide initiatieven sluiten volledig aan bij het beginsel van het bevorderen van duurzame energie.

This leads us to the following questions:. In South Africa, about half of the amount remains. Can the Commission explain why? Can the Commission explain to the taxpayer why too many funds are apparently made available to these countries, while there is an economic crisis raging at home? The financing for this initiative in both regions and the remainder of the Southern Africa regional programme were committed in For West Africa, the identified projects are currently going through the approval process.

So far all these deadlines have been respected. The Commission has taken the necessary steps to absorb the funds or reallocate them to countries with special needs in the course of Both initiatives are fully in line with the principle of promoting of renewable energy. In zijn schriftelijk antwoord op vraag nr. Een van de belangrijkste criteria om in aanmerking te komen voor begrotingssteun is de inachtneming van de subsidiabiliteitscriteria: De Commissie heeft in november besloten dat er onvoldoende vooruitgang is geboekt bij de uitvoering van het tweede strategisch programma voor armoedebestrijding PRSP en dat Guyana om die reden niet langer voldeed aan de subsidiabiliteitscriteria op het gebied van nationaal ontwikkelingsbeleid.

Have appropriate measures been adopted to prevent recurrence, and if so, what are they? The objective of this programme is to support the Guyanese national development plan. The operation is composed of fixed and variable disbursements, related to the achievement of specific targets in the areas of public financial management, health and social housing. One of the cornerstones for the provision of Budget Support is respect for the eligibility criteria: All Commission funding to Guyana and other countries is managed under the Commission's Financial Regulation which provides the necessary framework and safeguards to ensure that European taxpayers' money is properly used.

Vervolgvragen Nederlandse leges voor verblijfsvergunningen. Bij brief van In die brief wordt deze verhoging in verband gebracht met de verlaging van de leges voor gezinshereniging en de verwachting uitgesproken dat de nieuwe legestarieven medio januari van kracht zullen worden. In het arrest van Voor ieder kind moeten bij toelating de volle leges worden betaald, dus voor overkomst van drie kinderen moet EUR worden betaald.

De dialoog met de Nederlandse autoriteiten is nog aan de gang. Uit de informatie die is verstrekt, kan niet worden afgeleid wanneer de nieuwe leges van toepassing zullen worden. Op dit moment kan de Commissie de koppeling tussen de verschillende leges nog niet beoordelen aangezien de Nederlandse autoriteiten haar de nodige informatie daarover nog moeten verstrekken. The Commission has contacted the Dutch authorities to ask some clarifications on the new system of fees and the way these fees would be applied under the national legislation that has transposed the Family Reunification Directive.

The dialogue with the Dutch authorities is ongoing. From the information provided it is not clear when the new fees will be applied. The assessment of the link between different fees cannot be made at the moment, as the Dutch authorities still have to provide the Commission with the necessary information in this regard. Dezember verabschiedete das ungarische Parlament zwei Rechtsakte in diesem Bereich: It appears that in Hungary, national laws have been enacted recently to prevent anyone who is not a Hungarian citizen — and thus citizens of other EU Member States — leasing or purchasing land in Hungary.

If not, what is the Commission proposing to do to ensure Hungary complies with EU legislation? The Commission recalls that national legislation on the acquisition of land has to comply with EC law, in particular the provisions of the TFEU on the free movement of capital as well as the relevant jurisprudence of the CJEU.

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As part of its monitoring activities in this field, the Commission is scrutinising the abovementioned Hungarian measures. Based on its assessment, the Commission will take, in due time, all appropriate steps if needed to ensure that Hungary fully respects EC law, including its commitments enshrined in the Accession Treaty. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have recently published a study, stating that the increasing level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has a negative effect on the protein content of wheat, and, therefore, affects the nutritional quality of the grain, with consequences for human and animal nutrition.

Can the Commission present an official point of view on this issue? The findings of researchers at Gothenburg University are indeed very interesting and deserve to be given special attention in particular in the context of policies and research for food security. The Commission does not undertake assessments of research publications and has therefore no official position on outcomes of independent research.

However, sustainability and food security research need to consider the effects and interactions of environmental challenges. One of the core themes of this SRA is adapting seeds and breeds through conventional breeding and biotechnology to new combinations of environment and management: Pesticide mortel pour les abeilles: Les conclusions sont accablantes.

The Network is calling for an immediate ban on the use of all neonicotinoids in agriculture. The three highest-selling seed treatment insecticides have recently been found to be toxic to bees by EFSA. Opinions and counter-opinions have come thick and fast. Beekeepers have seen their bee colonies collapse and have been relentlessly alerting the authorities and taking legal action. Now the work of EFSA scientists could, once and for all, spell the end for this new generation of seed insecticides, which are highly prized in the agricultural sector.

The conclusions are damning. However, there are acute risks when they are used on crops that do attract bees, with rape and sunflower being obvious examples. Bees are also exposed via the dust produced by seeds or granules during sowing, and especially via exudation from treated crops, which produces tiny water droplets impregnated with pesticide.

EFSA concludes that the studies carried out on maize treated with thiamethoxam show an acute effect on bees. In other words, can it guarantee that no other pesticide on the market endangers the lives of bees and hence the ecosystem on which we all depend? The winning company was registered on the Commercial Register only five days before the tendering date.

The company in question has currently stopped supplying food despite already receiving part of the money it was due. Can the Commission specify whether it intends to verify the conditions under which the aforementioned tendering process took place? In response to the issues raised, the Honourable Member will be aware that, under the general rules of shared management which govern Agricultural Funds, Member States are responsible in the first instance for the implementation of agricultural measures, their audit and control, including the recovery of any unduly paid amounts.

In this framework the Member States also have a regulatory obligation to transmit detailed information on detected irregularities to the Commission within a certain time limit. The programme to which the Honourable Member refers falls under the shared management of Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Commission and the competent Romanian authorities. However, in this instance, the Commission has been informed by OLAF that the matter described has not been reported to it for examination.

The Italian authorities have informed the European Commission that, due to the exceptional epidemiological situation and the high risk of the spread of African Swine Fever from Sardinia Italy to other regions, it would need additional support to ensure the implementation of the stipulated sanitary measures. Can the Commission specify whether it intends to impose measures to restrict the movement of pigs and pork products originating from Italy? The epidemiological situation is also discussed regularly at the meetings of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. According to European Commission officials quoted by the Romanian press, Romania is violating EU rules on import controls of food and animal feed.

The Romanian authorities were apparently recently informed of this through an official letter regarding the initiation of enforcement procedures, but this was not made public. According to sources cited by the press, the Romanian authorities would impose systematic controls and would require radioactivity level analysis reports for each wagon of salt from Ukraine, and only later would conclude the customs import formalities. Can the Commission specify exactly what Romania is being accused of in this respect? The Commission has started an infringement proceeding as regards Romania.

These are currently being applied fully or partially by nine Member States. One Member State has announced that it wishes to find ways to extend the restrictions on Romanian and Bulgarian workers. Can the Commission specify whether a Member State can introduce unilateral restrictions on the labour market and what recourse does it have in mind to prevent such measures?

According to the findings, treatment with amoxicillin does not significantly improve the symptoms of respiratory infections, but can instead cause other health issues as well as resistance to drugs. Is the Commission aware of the findings of this study? Does it intend to propose legislative measures? The Commission is fully aware of the research results that have been published by researchers of the University of Southampton. Antimicrobial drugs such as amoxicillin are crucial to safeguard the health of European citizens, and the Commission gives high priority to address the problems associated with antimicrobial resistance.

This action plan contains 12 actions including strengthening the promotion of appropriate use of antimicrobials in all Member States, as well as strengthening the regulatory framework on veterinary medicines and on medicated feed. In addition, it contains actions aimed at reinforcing research efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance. A similar procedure for amoxicillin-only medicinal products is expected to start in The Romanian authorities have launched a wide-ranging television advertising campaign on the use of EU funds in Romania, consisting of paying for TV spots that reflect the hypothetical benefits of structural and cohesion funds.

A website has also been set up for this purpose at www. This campaign does not contain pieces of information on the opportunities available to citizens or companies to attract EU funds as it is an advertising campaign for the Romanian Government. The campaign is running only shortly in advance of parliamentary elections, which raises some questions. Given that the absorption rate of EU funds in Romania is far below the expectations of Romanian citizens, that part of the funds are suspended because of corruption, that access to information regarding the use of EU funds is precarious and some information is even hidden from the beneficiaries:.

Does the Commission know the amount allocated by the Romanian Government to this campaign? Does the Commission consider that this is an appropriate end use of EU funds in line with EU growth targets? The Commission is aware that television advertising campaigns are part of the communication plans of the Romanian government but cannot comment on the appropriateness of the timing of this particular campaign. Information and publicity measures for each programme are an obligation under cohesion policy and have to follow the provisions of cohesion policy regulations.

Information activities should observe strict sound financial management and proportionality principles. Repeatedly, food produced in Poland and exported to other Member States has caused scandals and anxiety among European consumers, and has been accused of being of insufficient quality chicken, fish, meat or of containing hazardous substances, such as technical salt or, just recently, rat poison.

Can the Commission confirm that the quality of food originating in Poland does not significantly differ from the food that is produced in other Member States? Is the Commission prepared to publish, on a regular basis, a list of Member States comparing quality of food production based on the findings of the food control authorities RASFF notifications? There is a comprehensive body of legislation to ensure the safety of food placed on the market in the European Union.

Member States are responsible for the enforcement of EU food law and verify, through the organisation of official controls, that the relevant safety requirements are fulfilled by business operators at all stages. Official controls must be carried out regularly, on a risk basis, with appropriate frequency and appropriate measures must be taken to eliminate risk and ensure enforcement of EU food law. From its side, the European Commission has the responsibility to ensure that EU legislation is properly implemented across the whole EU.

The Commission is not in possession of information indicating that the level of safety of food originating from Poland is as a rule significantly different or lower than that of food originating from other EU Member States. In the recent case referred to by the Honourable Member, the official controls system established by Poland has allowed the competent authorities to identify the problem, to promptly issue information about the possible risks through the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, and to take immediate action.

The Commission does not collect information on the Member States performances in terms of quality of food production. Unter Bezugnahme auf Frage 5: Der Gesetzentwurf wurde jedoch noch nicht vom Parlament verabschiedet. Sie hat Kroatien jedoch nicht zur Ausarbeitung dieses Gesetzentwurfs aufgefordert. The ministry announced a nine-day public consultation process.

Are there any risks associated with the proposed law with regard to the preservation and sustainability of public goods? Have environmental impact assessments been sufficiently taken into account by the Croatian authorities? What risks does this draft law on strategic investments pose with regard to environmental impact assessments?

The Commission maintains a regular dialogue on reform priorities with Croatia and, in this context, also provided comments on the draft law on strategic investment projects. However, the draft law has not yet been adopted by parliament. The Commission will closely monitor that EU obligations, including on environmental impact assessments, are respected by newly introduced legislation.

The Commission has highlighted on several occasions the need for Croatia to further stimulate investments, enhance the business environment, and improve the competitiveness of the Croatian economy. However, the Commission has not asked Croatia to draft such a law. Finally, with regard to the internal study referred to by the Honourable Member, the Commission is not in a position to provide comments or conclusions.

However, the Commission has identified a number of shortcomings concerning the quality of environmental impact studies of water regulation and energy projects in Croatia. These have been the subject of discussion with the Croatian authorities and the Commission is confident that an acceptable solution will be in place for the date of accession. Falta de transparencia en las decisiones sobre el rescate financiero. The text announces that strict conditions will be imposed on the functioning of the bank sector, at least for the banks that have been evaluated, but it leaves many questions unanswered:.

Will the Commission hold executives accountable? The Commission publishes non-confidential versions of its decisions, making public the full reasoning behind them. The Commission must suppress business secrets or other sensitive information in its decisions. The more aid the bank has received, normally measured as a percentage of its risk weighted assets, the bigger the restructuring needed.

Investigation of possible malpractice in the management of state aided banks is the responsibility of national authorities, supervisors and courts. Can the Commission state what the conclusions were of this review, or what progress has been made in undertaking it, and what opportunity there remains for individuals and organisations to make representations regarding the issues being considered? The review of the VAT treatment of public bodies and the exemptions in the public interest has not yet been finalised.

Nel dicembre del , la Commissione europea ha lanciato un programma da 2,8 milioni di EUR per sostenere il rispetto dei diritti umani in Marocco. Il Marocco resta un paese impoverito a causa della concentrazione anomala di ricchezza nelle mani del re e del suo entourage. Sembra inoltre che il governo stia silenziosamente reprimendo l'attivismo politico.

Nell'ottobre del , le Nazioni Unite hanno riferito di un recente aumento dei casi di tortura denunciati in Marocco. Intende il SEAE analizzare l'effettivo impatto delle riforme che il governo marocchino afferma di aver messo in atto? That programme could be viewed as a reward for the reform efforts undertaken by the Moroccan Government over the past two years. Morocco is still an impoverished country because of the abnormal concentration of wealth in the hands of its king and his entourage.

Moreover, it seems that the Government is quietly clamping down on political activists. In May, a popular rapper was sentenced to a year in jail for a song about police corruption, while six political activists testified at a hearing in September that they had been physically — and sexually — abused after being arrested for protesting in July. Is the EEAS planning to analyse the real impact of the reforms that the Morrocan Government claims to have implemented? EU-Morocco relations have made significant progress in recent years and have contributed to a wide process of democratic reform in that country.

The strengthening of fundamental freedoms and democratic principles in the new Constitution as well as the establishment and consolidation of the National Council for Human Rights are positive developments in this regard. However, further progress is necessary, as evidenced by the facts described in the Parliamentary Question. The Universal Service Directive contains the obligation for undertakings providing the call to make caller location available to the authority handling emergency calls. The same paragraph provides that competent regulatory authorities shall lay down criteria for the accuracy and reliability of the caller location information provided.

Consequently, it is for Member States to impose caller location criteria. The Commission attaches much importance to the delivery of accurate location information to emergency services. Therefore, the Commission services are currently discussing with Member States in the communications Committee the neccesity of implementing more stringent caller location criteria.

Nevertheless, questions have been raised concerning the use of existing European organisations and their cooperation with the European Commission, particularly in making decisions on research strategy and planning in these fields. How much cooperation is there with the aforementioned European organisations, particularly during the research planning process in their areas of responsibility? Have there been any problems concerning overlaps and shared competence and how were these dealt with? Are these organisations represented institutionally during the preparatory phase for European Commission proposals on matters concerning their fields of research and operation?

Given that funding for these intergovernmental organisations comes mainly from EU Member States, does the Commission intend to propose a different model for enhanced cooperation to avoid expensive overlapping and unnecessary repetition? This cooperation facilitates complementarity and avoidance of overlaps.

It allows the organisations to provide preliminary inputs to Commission proposals and research work programmes in their respective fields of activity. The aforementioned processes coupled with the role of Member States in programme committees and stakeholder consultations underpin, to a large extent, complementarity and synergies. Does the Commission know exactly how these programmes are administered in Greece, i. Does it believe that the situations described above fall within the jurisdiction of OLAF?

The management of the European Structural Funds budget is subject to the rules of shared management. OLAF will examine it and decide if it falls within its mandate for action. If so, how can such a large difference in prices in an alleged single market be justified? Does this price cap comply with EU policies? Does the Commission believe that price capping will help to regulate milk prices and the milk market in Cyprus? Are there any measures that the Commission could introduce to help consumers and prevent excessive increases in the price of a basic product such as milk?

Pasteurised milk is not included in the list of products for which the Member States have to submit to the Commission a weekly price notification. Nevertheless, the Commission closely monitors the development of the milk market in EU. The Commission is aware of the existence of price divergences for similar products in different Member States. Setting of maximum prices does not in itself constitute a measure having an effect equivalent to quantitative restrictions provided that there is no in law or in fact discrimination against products from other Member States.

The Competition Authorities follow the situation in the milk sector see the recent ECN Report on the activities in the food sector. The Cypriot competition authority investigates an alleged abusive behaviour in the raw milk sector. A price increase as the one at the origin of the adoption of the Decree may be the consequence of an anticompetitive behaviour by companies and could be assessed under the general competition rules.

The Commission stands ready to carefully look into factual and legal issues brought to its attention with respect to any alleged anti-competitive behaviour such as excessive pricing in the food sector. Aaron Swartz y se hace plenamente cargo del dolor de su familia. La estrategia propuesta indica claramente el compromiso de la UE con un ciberespacio abierto y gratuito. This controversial and brilliant young man was famous for having worked at the age of 14 on very important computer projects still in use today. Beyond his reputation as a programming genius, particularly in the area of Internet applications, this young man became famous for his activism in defence of the free circulation of information online.

The young programmer made a great many contributions to the circulation of information on the Internet. His work was marked by the development of applications that facilitated the production and circulation of information online, including RSS, Reddit, Markdown. His dizzying career as a programmer led him to become involved in cyberactivism as the only way to defend freedom of expression, information and communication on the Internet.

Early on, his career as an activist led him to become aware of the dangers posed to the freedom of information and communication by the new SOPA and PIPA laws adopted in the United States. His activism drove him to carry out actions that would place him at risk, and in the FBI arrested him — but released him without charges — for publishing public court documents for which payment was required on a website. However, she does not have any particular information regarding the legal proceedings in this case and she has therefore not discussed it with the US.

Key concerns are that the process has been rushed, without effective, participatory consultations with a broad cross-section of civil society including IDPs and refugees , and lacks transparency and accountability. What assessment have representatives of the Commission made of the human rights situation in Chin State? How much funding will be provided from the European Union in as part of support for peacebuilding efforts, and what percentage will be earmarked for Chin State?

What are the EU-funded peacebuilding projects to be undertaken in the Chin State? The EU is fully conscious that moving forward in the national reconciliation process must be coupled with endeavours to strengthen the rule of law and the respect of human rights. The EU was again the main sponsor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution on the situation of human rights in Myanmar in The latter include remaining human rights violations, in particular in ethnic areas.

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The EU has several ongoing projects funded bilaterally in Chin focusing on child and maternal health. The EU is a major contributor to the multi-donor trust funds education, health and livelihoods. A multi-stakeholder group including the local population and civil society organisations is currently discussing how to conduct a joint assessment to identify priority needs in Chin. Based on this stakeholder consultation we will be able to determine our response in Chin State, including for peacebuilding.

Discussão da obra A ética da Redistribuição (Bertrand de Jouvenel). Prof. Juliano Marcos. parte 2/5

I denne forbindelse er der imidlertid blevet overset et vigtigt aspekt af standardiseringsprocessen i forhold til sikkerheden af bilernes konstruktion. Because of the many electric cables and the high voltage in these cars, it can be very dangerous to cut people out of the car when they are trapped in an accident. In Denmark, for example, there have been a number of cases in which the rescue team were obliged to let the car burn out, because it was too risky to cut into the car to rescue a person trapped inside. Is the Commission prepared to consider this aspect in its work on the standardisation of electric cars?

The Commission is aware of the safety implications involved in the operation of electric vehicles. It has therefore been taking the necessary steps in order to ensure the protection of the occupants of vehicles running with electric power, both during driving and in case of an accident. In this respect, the Commission has been involved in the definition of technical requirements with respect to the safety of batteries fitted in electric vehicles, in the framework of a working group within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNECE.

Hence, regulations are currently in force ensuring the safe behaviour of electric vehicles as a whole and also of batteries as a component. Furthermore, the adoption of the abovementioned requirements does not preclude Member States from adopting additional measures in order to guarantee an effective operation by emergency services personnel, for instance, through specific training helping to quickly recognise the high voltage parts of the vehicle and the most appropriate measures to be undertaken in any specific situation.

In this respect, it should be emphasised that the authorities responsible for emergency services may vary from one Member State to another, and are handled either at local, regional or national level. Finder Kommissionen, at den danske vejledning er i overensstemmelse med forordning EF nr. The apiary should not be in the vicinity of sources of pollution, which can lead to the contamination of honey or impair the health of the bees — e.

In addition, the content of these guidelines is also contrary, for example, to the premises governing other Danish organic food production. Organic crop production takes place in Denmark side by side with conventional crop production and is thus exposed to external effects, inter alia in the form of spray drift and airborne nitrates. If the Danish guidelines are in line with the regulation, does the Commission consider that the legislative framework for organic beekeeping in Denmark does not treat organic beekeeping in the same way as other forms of organic food production in Denmark, for example as regards the requirements concerning the possible effects of farming methods associated with conventional cultivation?

Can the Commission indicate how other Member States apply this regulation, and if the regulation has the same impact on organic beekeeping in these countries as it does in Denmark? The European organic legislation does not discriminate the organic beekeepers compared to the other organic producers. Based on that, the Danish authorities may restrain the areas where the apiary can be organically certified. Valutazione dell'affidamento condiviso a livello europeo. In base all'articolo 24 della Carta dei diritti fondamentali dell'Unione europea ogni bambino ha diritto di intrattenere regolarmente relazioni personali e contatti diretti con entrambi i genitori.

La definizione di affidamento condiviso appartiene al diritto sostanziale di famiglia e, in quanto tale, non rientra nell'ambito di competenza dell'UE, ma esclusivamente in quello degli Stati membri. Children are the most vulnerable ones in situations of family tension and conflict. In practice, in the event of separation or divorce, this should mean a balanced and continuing relationship for the child with both parents.

From the information available on the website of the European Judicial Network, many Member States have made provision for joint custody, which, if rigorously applied, can be extremely beneficial for the children. However, quite apart from international child abduction, there are very many cases of children born to parents of the same nationality, who, following a separation, no longer have regular contact with one parent.

This is a hidden issue that results in thousands of children losing contact not only with one of the two parents, but also with their relatives on that side of the family. Is there any data at Member State level on the percentages of children in the custody of the father and of the mother, as well as the percentage of children in joint custody? Are there any studies into the effective implementation of joint custody? If so, do these studies show — as the questioner has heard from various sources — major disparities in the implementation of this system for children from different Member States?

Are there any studies that identify best practices for safeguarding co-parenting? Is it aware of any organisations, or networks of organisations, that safeguard parent-child relations in the event of a separation? The definition of joint custody belongs to substantive family law. As such, it does not fall within the EU's competence but remains under the sole responsibility of the Member States.

This explains why there may be differences in the national systems as regards the definition of joint custody and how it works in practice. The Commission is not aware of any studies, best practices or data collected in respect of children in joint custody or co-parenting. The Commission is aware of organisations that safeguard parent-child relations in the event of a separation, such as The International Social Service, as a result of the consultations it conducts concerning its rights-of-the-child policy.

Jeg beder derfor om, at Kommissionen vil revurdere behovet for politisk handling set i lyset af de nye oplysninger. In its answer, the Commission said it would not do anything, but that it was following developments in the area. New knowledge has now appeared which, in my opinion, gives cause for a reassessment of the need for action at EU level.

This thorough study shows that coverage is catastrophic. Researchers from Aalborg University have also investigated different mobile phone antennae — including those of popular smartphones. Here too the results have been poor, as the antennae are often unable to capture weaker signals. Regardless of whether it is the telecom companies or the mobile phone manufacturers who should be making an effort, it is the consumer that suffers.


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Does the Commission agree that consumers should be better informed through an EU labelling system on antenna strength? If a consumer lives in an area with less good coverage, is there any point in going for a phone with a very good antenna? A labelling system can therefore help consumers make their choice.

Will the Commission reconsider introducing requirements for a new minimum standard for mobile antennae in the European market? Will the Commission therefore reassess the need for political action in light of this new information. Introduction of compulsory labelling for the variety of antennas present within smartphones, corresponding to various bands and functionalities 2G, 3G, 4 G, WiFi , would be complex in its implementation and would not necessarily be understood by consumers.

Therefore the Commission does not currently consider it appropriate to introduce additional requirements with regard to such an EU labelling system.

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Regarding requirements for coverage of mobile networks, they are not harmonised at EU level but depend on the licensing conditions set by Member States for operators. For example, for mobile services in the MHz band, Denmark has set requirements for coverage of densely populated areas which will ensure a better coverage than required for example of Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services operating in the MHz band. The Commission supports measures reinforcing competitive mobile markets and considers that the imposition of coverage obligations serves the broadband targets set out in its Digital Agenda for Europe strategy in support of increasing economic and social welfare.

It also introduces the capacity — with prior notification to the Gaming Commission introduced in this Law — to implement new gambling games, although these are not specified in the original application. Therefore, the Commission is asked:. It appears from the available information that no project of the nature described by the Honourable Member is currently in the process of being authorised by the Spanish authorities. In view of the absence of a project or any indication that the Spanish authorities would not correctly apply the relevant EU legislation, should authorisation for any such project be sought, the Commission considers that this case does not warrant, at present, a request of information from the Spanish authorities.

Despite the obligation under Community law to provide the public with guarantees of access to information and given, in particular, the impact that development of a project of this nature will have on many sectors, the lack of information about legal reforms of all kinds carried out by the Autonomous Community of Madrid is quite flagrant. This is a fait accompli policy, totally lacking in transparency and threatening to leave the public in a defenceless situation. In view of the above:. It appears from the information provided by the Honourable Member that no such project is currently in the process of being authorised by the Spanish authorities.

Given this, the Commission is not in the position to request information from the Spanish authorities on this subject. Five of these projects were in just one country — Italy, while Hungary had three projects and Slovakia had none. What criteria were applied given that Italy was allocated funding for five projects and Slovakia did not receive funding for any projects?


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Throughout the selection procedures project proposals undergo a double evaluation by independent experts who are selected on the basis of an open call for expression of interest. Taking into consideration the available budget in relation to the number of applications, only the projects having reached the highest score can be retained for funding.

Sostegno dell'innovazione tecnologica automobilistica da parte della Commissione. Le automobili europee presentano uno svantaggio temporale rispetto alle tecnologie informatiche in uso, con un ritardo nella loro applicazione dovuto al ciclo di costruzione di anni rispetto alle evoluzioni della tecnologia informatica che segue un ciclo di circa sei mesi. Ha la Commissione analizzato se le tecnologie digitali applicate negli Stati membri seguendo le direttive comunitarie, in particolare nel settore della sicurezza dei trasporti, siano in qualche modo inficiate da questo gap tecnologico?

Come intende promuovere la Commissione una migliore cooperazione fra settore innovativo e tecnologico e settore automobilistico per rilanciare il mercato automobilistico europeo e renderlo competitivo rispetto alle produzioni extraeuropee? La Commissione ha sostenuto la cooperazione tra i due settori nell'ambito dei programmi di lavoro per la ricerca sulle TIC e del partenariato pubblico-privato nell'iniziativa europea per le auto verdi.

European motor cars suffer from a temporal disadvantage with regard to the information technologies used, with a delay in their application caused by the four-to-five-year construction cycle, compared with the evolution of the information technologies themselves, which follows a cycle of approximately six months. Has the Commission analysed whether the digital technologies applied in the Member States in accordance with Community directives, particularly in the transport safety sector, are invalidated to some degree by this technology gap?

How does the Commission intend to encourage better cooperation between the innovation and technology sector and the automotive industry in order to boost the European automotive market and make it competitive with non-EU production? The review is expected to comprise a new legislative proposal on how to avoid delays in ITS deployment caused by different development cycles in Information and Communication technologies ICT and automotive industries.

It will also touch upon other obstacles, which delay rolling-out of advanced ICT-based safety technologies for road transport and mobility. The Commission has supported cooperation between both sectors under the ICT research work programmes and the European Green Cars Initiative public-private partnership.

The iMobility Forum stakeholder platform will continue facilitating cooperation between the involved parties. The continuation of the Green Cars Initiative with a strong focus on electro-mobility is being proposed by industrial stakeholders under Horizon La Commissione deve sorvegliare gli hedge fund americani nell'UE. La Commissione intende avviare un dialogo con gli Stati Uniti in merito a una regolamentazione, almeno de minimis, su tali fondi?

Possono anche essere imposte misure come le restrizioni alla leva finanziaria, qualora esse contribuiscano ad accrescere il rischio sistemico o il rischio di turbolenze sui mercati. Anche in assenza di passaporto europeo, la direttiva sui GEFIA dispone che i gestori degli hedge fund americani osservino gli obblighi di trasparenza e di segnalazione per commercializzare i loro fondi nei singoli Stati membri.

Queste norme consentono di far fronte al rischio di turbolenze sui mercati derivante dalle vendite allo scoperto. Does the Commission intend to open a dialogue with the United States concerning the regulation, even if minimal, of these funds? Has the Commission examined their impact on the European stock markets, and can it provide documentation for this? The Commission seeks to ensure that supervisory cooperation between EU competent authorities identifies and addresses the exposure of systemically important institutions to hedge funds.

Measures, such as restrictions on leverage, may also be imposed if leverage leads to the build-up of systemic risk or risks of disorderly markets. The Commission will cooperate closely with US authorities in supervising hedge funds that operate in Europe. These measures will allow the Commission and EU competent authorities to better supervise hedge funds in the financial markets and intervene when necessary.

These rules address the risk of disorderly markets with regard to short selling. La Commissione riveda i suoi parametri sui pesticidi. Il documento tecnico presentato dalla direzione generale Salute e Consumatori DG Sanco della Commissione Europea porta a una sottostima sistematica dei tassi di pesticidi residui rilevati sugli alimenti, imponendo di dimezzare, in caso di incertezza, il valore minore rilevato. Di fatto, questo comporterebbe che i residui di pesticidi sarebbero rilevati solo qualora superassero di due volte i valori previsti.

La Commissione non ritiene che tale algoritmo crei un rischio serio per la salute dei cittadini? La Commissione desidera rassicurare l'onorevole deputato sul fatto che gli algoritmi usati per interpretare le misure dei residui di pesticidi non presentano un rischio per i consumatori. Pertanto, il superamento di un LMR non porta, nella maggior parte dei casi, ad un rischio per i consumatori.

A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)
A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition) A Ética da Redistribuição (Portuguese Edition)

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