Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not officially documented; and for many years it was disputed whether he was born in or Upon the exile of Henry's father in , Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath , the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament.
In , Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England. He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November , the third person to hold the title that year. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort , the chancellor of the university.
Less than three years later, Henry was in command of part of the English forces. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore , the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic , crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage and flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. When the king recovered, he reversed most of these and dismissed the prince from his council. Then, as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January , helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort , legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government.
Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November The quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince. It may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare , is partly due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in His descendants objected and the name was changed the character became a composite of several real persons, including Sir John Fastolf. That friendship, and the prince's political opposition to Thomas Arundel , Archbishop of Canterbury , perhaps encouraged Lollard hopes.
If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry on becoming king was suddenly changed into a new man. The ceremony was marked by a terrible snowstorm, but the common people were undecided as to whether it was a good or bad omen. His complexion was ruddy, the face lean with a prominent and pointed nose. Depending on his mood, his eyes "flashed from the mildness of a dove's to the brilliance of a lion's".
Henry tackled all of the domestic policies together and gradually built on them a wider policy. From the first, he made it clear that he would rule England as the head of a united nation.
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On the other hand, where Henry saw a grave domestic danger, he acted firmly and ruthlessly, such as the Lollard discontent in January and including the execution by burning of Henry's old friend Sir John Oldcastle in to "nip the movement in the bud" and make his own position as ruler secure. His reign was generally free from serious trouble at home. Mortimer himself remained loyal to Henry.
Starting in August , Henry V promoted the use of the English language in government  and his reign marks the appearance of Chancery Standard English as well as the adoption of English as the language of record within government. He was the first king to use English in his personal correspondence since the Norman conquest years earlier.
Henry could now turn his attention to foreign affairs. A writer of the next generation was the first to allege that Henry was encouraged by ecclesiastical statesmen to enter into the French war as a means of diverting attention from home troubles. This story seems to have no foundation. However, it was the old dynastic claim to the throne of France , first pursued by Edward III of England , that justified war with France in English opinion. His goal was to persuade Henry to modify his demands against the French.
The French Wars.
Henry lavishly entertained the emperor and even had him enrolled in the Order of the Garter. Sigismund, in turn, inducted Henry into the Order of the Dragon. Henry may have regarded the assertion of his own claims as part of his royal duty, but a permanent settlement of the national debate was essential to the success of his foreign policy. On 12 August , Henry sailed for France, where his forces besieged the fortress at Harfleur , capturing it on 22 September.
Afterwards, Henry decided to march with his army across the French countryside towards Calais despite the warnings of his council. Despite his men-at-arms being exhausted, outnumbered and malnourished, Henry led his men into battle, decisively defeating the French , who suffered severe losses. It is often argued that the French men-at-arms were bogged down in the muddy battlefield, soaked from the previous night of heavy rain, and that this hindered the French advance, allowing them to be sitting targets for the flanking English and Welsh archers.
Most were simply hacked to death while completely stuck in the deep mud. During the battle,  Henry ordered that the French prisoners taken during the battle be put to death, including some of the most illustrious who could be used for ransom. Cambridge historian Brett Tingley posits that Henry was concerned that the prisoners might turn on their captors when the English were busy repelling a third wave of enemy troops, thus jeopardising a hard-fought victory.
The victorious conclusion of Agincourt, from the English viewpoint, was only the first step in the campaign to recover the French possessions that he felt belonged to the English crown. Agincourt also held out the promise that Henry's pretensions to the French throne might be realised. Command of the sea was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the English Channel.
A French land force also besieged the town. The Franco-Genoese fleet was defeated the following day after a gruelling seven-hour battle and Harfleur was relieved. With those two potential enemies gone, and after two years of patient preparation following the Battle of Agincourt, Henry renewed the war on a larger scale in Lower Normandy was quickly conquered and Rouen was cut off from Paris and besieged. This siege cast an even darker shadow on the reputation of the king than his order to slay the French prisoners at Agincourt.
Rouen, starving and unable to support the women and children of the town, forced them out through the gates believing that Henry would allow them to pass through his army unmolested. However, Henry refused to allow this, and the expelled women and children died of starvation in the ditches surrounding the town. The French were paralysed by the disputes between Burgundians and Armagnacs. Henry skilfully played them off one against the other without relaxing his warlike approach. In January , Rouen fell. Alain Blanchard , who had hanged English prisoners from the walls of Rouen, was summarily executed; Robert de Livet, Canon of Rouen , who had excommunicated the English king, was packed off to England and imprisoned for five years.
By August, the English were outside the walls of Paris. The intrigues of the French parties culminated in the assassination of John the Fearless , Duke of Burgundy , by the Dauphin 's partisans at Montereau on 10 September. Philip the Good , the new duke, and the French court threw themselves into Henry's arms. After six months of negotiation, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry as the heir and regent of France see English Kings of France ,  and on 2 June at Troyes Cathedral , he married Catherine of Valois , the French king's daughter.
They had only one son, Henry, born on 6 December at Windsor Castle. He besieged and captured Melun in November , returning to England shortly thereafter. The duke was killed in the battle. On 10 June, Henry sailed back to France to retrieve the situation. It would be his last military campaign. From July to August, Henry's forces besieged and captured Dreux , thus relieving allied forces at Chartres.
On October 6, his forces laid siege to Meaux , capturing it on May 11, He was thought to have died from dysentery ,  supposedly contracted during the siege of Meaux. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. Henry V did not live to be crowned King of France himself, as he might confidently have expected after the Treaty of Troyes, because the sickly Charles VI, to whom he had been named heir, survived him by two months.
Henry's comrade-in-arms and Lord Steward , John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley , brought his body back to England and bore the royal standard at his funeral. By Henry's request, he shared his grave with his friend, Richard Courtenay , rather than his wife. This was confirmed in when the grave was opened. Courtenay's death in had left Henry distraught.http://wegoup777.online/como-dios-puede-y-va-a-restaurar.php
Henry V of England
The closeness of the attachment has led to scholarly speculation that Courtenay played a critical role in mentoring Henry to become a respected monarch and that the attachment was more than a friendship. Henry's arms as Prince of Wales were those of the kingdom , differenced by a label argent of three points.
Henry's achievement as Prince of Wales. Royal achievement as king. Her dowry, upon the agreement between the two kingdoms, was , crowns. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article is about the king. For the Shakespeare play, see Henry V play.
Westminster Abbey , London. Catherine of Valois m. Ancestors of Henry V of England Edward II of England 8. Edward III of England Isabella of France 4. Therefore, great king, We yield our town and lives to thy soft mercy. Enter our gates; dispose of us and ours; For we no longer are defensible. Come, uncle Exeter, Go you and enter Harfleur; there remain, And fortify it strongly 'gainst the French: Use mercy to them all. For us, dear uncle, The winter coming on and sickness growing Upon our soldiers, we will retire to Calais.
To-night in Harfleur we will be your guest; To-morrow for the march are we addrest. The King and his train enter the town. Comment appelez-vous la main en Anglois?
Henry V (c.1387 - 1422)
Je pense que je suis le bon ecolier; j'ai gagne deux mots d'Anglois vitement. Comment appelez-vous les ongles? Ecoutez; dites-moi, si je parle bien: Je m'en fais la repetition de tous les mots que vous m'avez appris des a present. Comment appelez-vous le col? Le col, de nick; de menton, de sin. Sauf votre honneur, en verite, vous prononcez les mots aussi droit que les natifs d'Angleterre. Comment appelez-vous le pied et la robe?
Battle of Britain
Neanmoins, je reciterai une autre fois ma lecon ensemble: Constable And if he be not fought withal, my lord, Let us not live in France; let us quit all And give our vineyards to a barbarous people. Mort de ma vie! Constable Dieu de batailles! Is not their climate foggy, raw and dull, On whom, as in despite, the sun looks pale, Killing their fruit with frowns? Can sodden water, A drench for sur-rein'd jades, their barley-broth, Decoct their cold blood to such valiant heat?
And shall our quick blood, spirited with wine, Seem frosty? O, for honour of our land, Let us not hang like roping icicles Upon our houses' thatch, whiles a more frosty people Sweat drops of gallant youth in our rich fields! Poor we may call them in their native lords. Let him greet England with our sharp defiance. Bar Harry England, that sweeps through our land With pennons painted in the blood of Harfleur: Rush on his host, as doth the melted snow Upon the valleys, whose low vassal seat The Alps doth spit and void his rheum upon: Go down upon him, you have power enough, And in a captive chariot into Rouen Bring him our prisoner.
Constable This becomes the great. Sorry am I his numbers are so few, His soldiers sick and famish'd in their march, For I am sure, when he shall see our army, He'll drop his heart into the sink of fear And for achievement offer us his ransom. And let him say to England that we send To know what willing ransom he will give. Prince Dauphin, you shall stay with us in Rouen. Now forth, lord constable and princes all, And quickly bring us word of England's fall. There is an aunchient lieutenant there at the pridge, I think in my very conscience he is as valiant a man as Mark Antony; and he is a man of no estimation in the world; but did see him do as gallant service.
I have the best armour of the world.
Would it were day! Constable It is the best horse of Europe. I will not change my horse with any that treads but on four pasterns. When I bestride him, I soar, I am a hawk: It is a beast for Perseus: Constable Indeed, my lord, it is a most absolute and excellent horse. DAUPHIN Nay, the man hath no wit that cannot, from the rising of the lark to the lodging of the lamb, vary deserved praise on my palfrey: I once writ a sonnet in his praise and began thus: Constable Nay, for methought yesterday your mistress shrewdly shook your back.
Constable Mine was not bridled. Constable You have good judgment in horsemanship. I had rather have my horse to my mistress. Constable I had as lief have my mistress a jade. Constable I could make as true a boast as that, if I had a sow to my mistress. Constable Yet do I not use my horse for my mistress, or any such proverb so little kin to the purpose. Constable Stars, my lord. Constable And yet my sky shall not want. Constable Even as your horse bears your praises; who would trot as well, were some of your brags dismounted.
Will it never be day? I will trot to-morrow a mile, and my way shall be paved with English faces. Constable I will not say so, for fear I should be faced out of my way: Constable You must first go yourself to hazard, ere you have them. From camp to camp through the foul womb of night The hum of either army stilly sounds, That the fixed sentinels almost receive The secret whispers of each other's watch: Fire answers fire, and through their paly flames Each battle sees the other's umber'd face; Steed threatens steed, in high and boastful neighs Piercing the night's dull ear, and from the tents The armourers, accomplishing the knights, With busy hammers closing rivets up, Give dreadful note of preparation: The country cocks do crow, the clocks do toll, And the third hour of drowsy morning name.
Proud of their numbers and secure in soul, The confident and over-lusty French Do the low-rated English play at dice; And chide the cripple tardy-gaited night Who, like a foul and ugly witch, doth limp So tediously away. The poor condemned English, Like sacrifices, by their watchful fires Sit patiently and inly ruminate The morning's danger, and their gesture sad Investing lank-lean; cheeks and war-worn coats Presenteth them unto the gazing moon So many horrid ghosts. O now, who will behold The royal captain of this ruin'd band Walking from watch to watch, from tent to tent, Let him cry 'Praise and glory on his head!
Bids them good morrow with a modest smile And calls them brothers, friends and countrymen. Upon his royal face there is no note How dread an army hath enrounded him; Nor doth he dedicate one jot of colour Unto the weary and all-watched night, But freshly looks and over-bears attaint With cheerful semblance and sweet majesty; That every wretch, pining and pale before, Beholding him, plucks comfort from his looks: A largess universal like the sun His liberal eye doth give to every one, Thawing cold fear, that mean and gentle all, Behold, as may unworthiness define, A little touch of Harry in the night.
And so our scene must to the battle fly; Where--O for pity! Yet sit and see, Minding true things by what their mockeries be. Good morrow, brother Bedford. There is some soul of goodness in things evil, Would men observingly distil it out. For our bad neighbour makes us early stirrers, Which is both healthful and good husbandry: Besides, they are our outward consciences, And preachers to us all, admonishing That we should dress us fairly for our end.
Thus may we gather honey from the weed, And make a moral of the devil himself. L'air et la feu. God be wi' you, princes all; I'll to my charge: If we no more meet till we meet in heaven, Then, joyfully, my noble Lord of Bedford, My dear Lord Gloucester, and my good Lord Exeter, And my kind kinsman, warriors all, adieu! And yet I do thee wrong to mind thee of it, For thou art framed of the firm truth of valour. French Soldier Je pense que vous etes gentilhomme de bonne qualite. Art thou a gentleman? French Soldier O Seigneur Dieu!
French Soldier O, prenez misericorde! French Soldier Est-il impossible d'echapper la force de ton bras? Thou damned and luxurious mountain goat, Offer'st me brass? French Soldier O pardonnez moi! French Soldier Monsieur le Fer. Boy He says his name is Master Fer. I'll fer him, and firk him, and ferret him: Boy I do not know the French for fer, and ferret, and firk. French Soldier Que dit-il, monsieur? Boy Il me commande de vous dire que vous faites vous pret; car ce soldat ici est dispose tout a cette heure de couper votre gorge.
French Soldier O, je vous supplie, pour l'amour de Dieu, me pardonner! Je suis gentilhomme de bonne maison: Boy He prays you to save his life: French Soldier Petit monsieur, que dit-il? Boy Encore qu'il est contre son jurement de pardonner aucun prisonnier, neanmoins, pour les ecus que vous l'avez promis, il est content de vous donner la liberte, le franchisement. French Soldier Sur mes genoux je vous donne mille remercimens; et je m'estime heureux que je suis tombe entre les mains d'un chevalier, je pense, le plus brave, vaillant, et tres distingue seigneur d'Angleterre.
Boy He gives you, upon his knees, a thousand thanks; and he esteems himself happy that he hath fallen into the hands of one, as he thinks, the most brave, valorous, and thrice-worthy signieur of England.
Henry V: Entire Play
Boy Suivez-vous le grand capitaine. Reproach and everlasting shame Sits mocking in our plumes. Do not run away. But all's not done; yet keep the French the field. My soul shall thine keep company to heaven; Tarry, sweet soul, for mine, then fly abreast, As in this glorious and well-foughten field We kept together in our chivalry! He smiled me in the face, raught me his hand, And, with a feeble gripe, says 'Dear my lord, Commend my service to me sovereign.
The pretty and sweet manner of it forced Those waters from me which I would have stopp'd; But I had not so much of man in me, And all my mother came into mine eyes And gave me up to tears. GOWER 'Tis certain there's not a boy left alive; and the cowardly rascals that ran from the battle ha' done this slaughter: O, 'tis a gallant king!
What call you the town's name where Alexander the Pig was born! I tell you, captain, if you look in the maps of the 'orld, I warrant you sall find, in the comparisons between Macedon and Monmouth, that the situations, look you, is both alike. There is a river in Macedon; and there is also moreover a river at Monmouth: If you mark Alexander's life well, Harry of Monmouth's life is come after it indifferent well; for there is figures in all things.
Alexander, God knows, and you know, in his rages, and his furies, and his wraths, and his cholers, and his moods, and his displeasures, and his indignations, and also being a little intoxicates in his prains, did, in his ales and his angers, look you, kill his best friend, Cleitus. I speak but in the figures and comparisons of it: I'll tell you there is good men porn at Monmouth.
Now we bear the king Toward Calais: Behold, the English beach Pales in the flood with men, with wives and boys, Whose shouts and claps out-voice the deep mouth'd sea, Which like a mighty whiffler 'fore the king Seems to prepare his way: So swift a pace hath thought that even now You may imagine him upon Blackheath; Where that his lords desire him to have borne His bruised helmet and his bended sword Before him through the city: But now behold, In the quick forge and working-house of thought, How London doth pour out her citizens!
The mayor and all his brethren in best sort, Like to the senators of the antique Rome, With the plebeians swarming at their heels, Go forth and fetch their conquering Caesar in: As, by a lower but loving likelihood, Were now the general of our gracious empress, As in good time he may, from Ireland coming, Bringing rebellion broached on his sword, How many would the peaceful city quit, To welcome him!
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Now in London place him; As yet the lamentation of the French Invites the King of England's stay at home; The emperor's coming in behalf of France, To order peace between them; and omit All the occurrences, whatever chanced, Till Harry's back-return again to France: There must we bring him; and myself have play'd The interim, by remembering you 'tis past. Then brook abridgment, and your eyes advance, After your thoughts, straight back again to France.
Saint Davy's day is past. I will tell you, asse my friend, Captain Gower: Unto our brother France, and to our sister, Health and fair time of day; joy and good wishes To our most fair and princely cousin Katharine; And, as a branch and member of this royalty, By whom this great assembly is contrived, We do salute you, Duke of Burgundy; And, princes French, and peers, health to you all!
So are you, princes English, every one.
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