The qualitative data were used to understand the processes underlying the quantitative outcomes. Conceptually, explanatory designs are often dependent: The qualitative component is used to explain and clarify the outcomes of the quantitative component. Yet, it was complex in the sense of involving multiple levels; both the level of the individual and the organization were included.
Sarah McMahon wanted to explore the subculture of college student athletes and specifically the meaning, role, and salience of rape myths within that culture. It is sequential, because the qualitative focus groups were conducted after the survey was administered. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data was independent: Both were analyzed independently, to see whether they yielded the same results which they did not.
This purpose, therefore, was triangulation. We doubt, however, whether this is the most appropriate label, because the qualitative component did not provide an explanation for quantitative results that were taken as given. On the contrary, the qualitative results contradicted the quantitative results. Notice further that the second case study had the same point of integration as the first case study.
The two components were brought together in the results. Thus, although the case studies are very dissimilar in many respects, this does not become visible in their point of integration.get link
Topic: Data from Qualitative Social Research
It can therefore be helpful to determine whether their point of extension is different. Therefore, the point of extension is the research question. In the second case study, both components answered the same research question. They differed in their data collection and subsequently in their data analysis: In this case study, the point of extension was data collection. Thus, the point of extension can be used to distinguish between the two case studies. First, we showed that there are there are many purposes for which qualitative and quantitative methods, methodologies, and paradigms can be mixed.
This must be determined in interaction with the research questions. The second dimension is theoretical drive in the sense that Morse and Niehaus use this term. This language is sometimes included in the design name to communicate this characteristic of the study design e. The third dimension is timing , which has two aspects: The fourth design dimension is the point of integration, which is where the qualitative and quantitative components are brought together and integrated.
This is an essential dimension, but it usually does not need to be incorporated into the design name. The fifth design dimension is that of typological vs. There are many typologies of designs currently in the literature. Our recommendation is that readers examine multiple design typologies to better understand the design process in mixed methods research and to understand what designs have been identified as popular in the field.
The seventh design dimension is called complexity. One sort of complexity mentioned was multilevel designs, but there are many complexities that can enter designs. This is not something to avoid. It is the responsibility of the researcher to learn how to construct and describe and name mixed methods research designs. The more one knows and thinks about the primary and secondary dimensions of mixed methods design the better equipped one will be to pursue mixed methods research.
Mixed methods in early childhood education. Springer ; The multilevel mixed intact group analysis: Journal of Mixed Methods Research Research methods, design and analysis.
How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design
Boston, MA with L. Turner ; Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. Los Angeles, CA with L. Christensen ; The Oxford handbook of multimethod and mixed methods research inquiry. New York, NY with S. How is it done? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Kolner Z Soz Sozpsychol. Published online Jul 5. Judith Schoonenboom 1 and R.
Methods of social research, Mixed methods, Qualitative methods, Quantitative methods, Research design, Mixed methods design, Mixing purpose, Timing of mixing, Point of integration, Design complexity. Theoretical drive Rolle von Theorie im Forschungsprozess 3. Point of integration Schnittstellen, an denen Integration stattfindet Integrations-Schnittstellen 5. Ideological drive Praktische Relevanz 4. Combination of sampling methods Kombinierte Stichprobenstrategien 5.
Type of implementation setting Untersuchungskontext 8. Open in a separate window. Triangulation seeks convergence, corroboration, correspondence of results from different methods; 2. Complementarity seeks elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with the results from the other method; 3.
Development seeks to use the results from one method to help develop or inform the other method, where development is broadly construed to include sampling and implementation, as well as measurement decisions; 4. Initiation seeks the discovery of paradox and contradiction, new perspectives of frameworks, the recasting of questions or results from one method with questions or results from the other method; 5.
Some primary ways that the components can be connected to each other are as follows: Design typology utilization As already mentioned in Sect. Our summary of these designs runs as follows: Dimension of complexity Next, mixed methods designs are characterized by their complexity.
Secondary design considerations The primary design dimensions explained above have been the focus of this article. Or is the researcher not interested in substantive theory based on empirical data? Will the study have an explicitly articulated ideological drive e. Combination of sampling methods: What specific quantitative sampling method s will be used?
What specific qualitative sampling methods s will be used? How will these be combined or related? Degree to which the research participants will be similar or different: For example, participants or stakeholders with known differences of perspective would provide participants that are quite different. Degree to which the researchers on the research team will be similar or different: Degree to which the methods similar or different: Validity criteria and strategies: Will there be essentially one research study or more than one? How will the research report be structured?
Two case studies The above design dimensions are now illustrated by examples. Acknowledgments Open access funding provided by University of Vienna. Biographies Judith Schoonenboom , Dr. Offset — refers to the suggestion that the research methods associated with both quantitative and qualitative research have their own strengths and weaknesses so that combining them allows the researcher to offset their weaknesses to draw on the strengths of both.
Process — quantitative research provides an account of structures in social life but qualitative research provides sense of process. Different research questions — this is the argument that quantitative and qualitative research can each answer different research questions but this item was coded only if authors explicitly stated that they were doing this.
Unexpected results — refers to the suggestion that quantitative and qualitative research can be fruitfully combined when one generates surprising results that can be understood by employing the other. Instrument development — refers to contexts in which qualitative research is employed to develop questionnaire and scale items — for example, so that better wording or more comprehensive closed answers can be generated. Here the subjective interpretations involved in understanding and meaning making are seen as central—the question of what subjective interpretations are held by the actors under study and what characterises them.
This approach is useful, for example, in studying fitness centres and bricoleurs in do-it-yourself-groups as well as also expert knowledge and techno cultures. Since the early s, an increase of ethnographic research can be noted. Ethnography has replaced studies using participant observation. It aims less at understanding social events or processes from reports about these events e. Research here is characterised by an extended participation instead of one spot interviews or observations and by the flexible use of different methods including more or less formalised interviews or analyses of documents.
Of central interest since the middle of the s is the part of writing about the observed events. More generally, this interest highlights the relation of the presentation and of what is presented. Especially in the United States, a tendency to replace the label "qualitative research" in all its facets by the label "ethnography" can be found. Another trend which is currently expanding mainly in media studies, but also in sociology WINTER is running under the labels of cultural studies. So far, the degree of commitment to elaborate methodology and methodological principles is rather low.
The approach is defined by its object "cultures", their analysis across cultural practices like media and its orientation on disadvantaged subcultures and on existing relations of power in concrete contexts. Essential impulses on the development of qualitative research questions and methodologies came and come from feminist research and gender studies. Here, the processes of constructing and differentiating gender and of the inequalities linked to that are studied. Phenomena like transsexuality are taken as an empirical starting point to demonstrate the social construction of "typical" images of gender.
Table 3 summarises the schools of qualitative research briefly mentioned here. Schools of qualitative research [ 32 ]. What are the current methodological trends in qualitative research? In the realm of the data that are used, beyond the traditional forms of data for qualitative research collected in interviews, focus groups or participant observation, visual data have now become more important. Using them raises questions like how to edit these data appropriately and whether methods originally created to analyse texts can be applied to these sorts of data.
Chapters on visual data can be found in handbooks and texts more and more often. Which new forms of data are available for studying the Internet and electronic communication like e-mail and which data have to be collected in order to analyse the processes of construction and communication that are involved? Several of the existing qualitative methods have been transferred and adapted to research using the Internet as a tool, resource, and issue of research. So, we find versions of interviewing per email, online focus groups and virtual ethnography as current trends, which ask for new issues of research ethics, raise new practical problems and questions and, of course, provide some new options to do research see FLICK , Ch.
The idea of triangulation is widely discussed. Linking different qualitative or qualitative and quantitative methods will become essential in the study of complex fields of investigation.
- The Secret Oracle Of An Egyptian King (The Horror Diaries Vol.10)?
- The Contemporary Comic Book Superhero (Routledge Research in Cultural and Media Studies).
- Midinght and the Racehorse (The Black Pony Adventures Book 2)?
- The Lesser Gods of the Sahara: Social Change and Indigenous Rights.
- RED: The Ultimate Guide to Using the Revolutionary Camera.
The special appeal of triangulation is that it allows going beyond the limitations of a single method by combining several methods and giving them an equal relevance. It is becoming more fruit ful, if different theoretical approaches are combined or taken into account in combining methods see for more details FLICK , a, b.
For example, research in ethnography and in cultural studies, but also in the development of grounded theories is not restricted to specific methods of data collection. Rather researchers here select methodological approaches in a field according to research pragmatic and combine most different methods if useful. This pragmatic use of methodological principles and avoidance of a restricting subscription to a specific methodological discourse have been labelled as hybridisation.
Furthermore, some topics can be identified that will become more important in the future of qualitative research or need further clarification. The development of computer programs for supporting qualitative research is a trend, which is either taken up very optimistically, or regarded sceptically e. The most developed area here is the use of computers for analysing texts. Are these programs in the end just different ways to a quite similar use and usability?
- Topic: Data from Qualitative Social Research | RatSWD ‒ Rat für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsdaten?
Will they have a sustainable impact on the ways qualitative data are used and analysed and what are the relation of technical investments and efforts to the resulting facilitation of routines and procedures will be in the long run? These issues still have to be observed. These programs support the handling and administration of data material e.
Whether the development of software to identify voice and spoken language sometime will lead to computer supported transcription of interviews and whether this will be wishful progress or not has to be awaited. Referring to this issue, several positions can be identified in the literature. Especially in hermeneutic or phenomenological research—hardly any need is seen for linking with quantitative research and its approaches.
This argument is based on the incompatibilities of the two research traditions, epistemologies, and their procedures. At the same time, models and strategies are developed to link qualitative and quantitative research. Finally, in the everyday life of research practice beyond methodological discussions, a link of both approaches often is necessary and useful for pragmatic reasons.
Therefore especially the question should be further discussed, how to conceptualise such a triangulation in a way which takes both approaches, their theoretical and methodological peculiarities into a serious account without any premature subordination of one approach under the other. Beyond comparing different strategies of reporting qualitative research, main topics in this discussion still are: How can qualitative researchers in their writing do justice to the life worlds they studied and to the subjective perspectives they met there?
What is the impact of the way of presentation on what is presented—research itself? How does the way of writing influence how research itself is conceptualised? What is the role of writing in assessing and for the assessability of qualitative research? The stress is laid in different ways. Ethnography sees the act of writing about what was studied at least as important as collecting and analysing data. In other fields, writing is seen in a rather instrumental way—how do I make my procedures in the field and the founding of my results transparent and plausible to recipients other scientists, readers, the general public etc.
All in all the interest in the discussion about writing has decreased, because of insights like: The topic of appropriate criteria to assess the quality of qualitative research still attracts a lot of attention. Several books approach this topic from different angles e. The basic alternatives, however, are still determining the discussion: Should traditional criteria of validity, reliability and objectivity be applied to qualitative research as well and how? Or should new, method-appropriate criteria be developed for qualitative research? Which are these and how can they exactly be "operationalised" for assessing the quality of qualitative research?
A fundamental scepticism against using criteria in general is mainly found in US discussions. To answer the question of appropriate criteria to distinguish good and bad research in qualitative research is an internal problem. At the same time, it is a need with regards to the attractiveness and the feasibility of qualitative research on the markets and arenas of teaching, research grants and of policy impact of social sciences.
Another tension in qualitative research is that of methodological purism and research pragmatics. Pure textbook versions of hermeneutic methods for example have been more and more elaborated. Such an elaboration leads to increasing needs for time, personal, and other resources when these methods are applied. So far, there have been limited attempts to publish the methodological procedures that determine the German speaking discussion, literature and research practice in English language publications.
Accordingly, the resonance of German language qualitative research in the English language discussion is rather modest. An internationalisation of qualitative research is needed in several directions. Not only should German language qualitative research pay more attention to what is currently discussed in Anglo-Saxon—or French—literature and take it up in its own discourse.
How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design
Also it should invest much more in publishing "home grown" approaches in international, English language journals and at international conferences. And finally, Anglo-Saxon discussion needs to open more towards what is going on in other countries' qualitative research. Not only in the field of qualitative research, but also in empirical research in general, textbooks of methodology hardly give any help with deciding when to select a specific method for a study.
Most books treat the single method or research design separately and describe their features and problems. In most cases, they do not arrive at a comparative presentation of the different methodological alternatives or at giving starting points for how to select a specific method and not a different one for a research issue. Thus, one's need for qualitative research is to further clarify the question of indication.
In medicine or psychotherapy, the appropriateness of a certain treatment for specific problems and groups of people is checked. This is named as indication. The answer to this question is whether or not a specific treatment is appropriate indicated for a specific problem in a specific case. If this is transferred to qualitative research, the relevant questions are, when are which qualitative methods appropriate—for which issue?
Which group of people population or fields to be studied? When are quantitative methods or a combination of both indicated? Indication of qualitative research methods [ 45 ]. Qualitative research between establishing schools of research and research pragmatics. Trends and developments [ 46 ]. The developments and trends outlined in this paper can be observed in qualitative research in general. We see at the same time developments, which are more specific for certain areas: Hermeneutic approaches and genre analysis for example have a stronger impact in the German discussion and research practices.
Qualitative online research or cultural studies are more prominent in Anglo-Saxon areas and discussions.
- El Aire Dulce (Spanish Edition).
- Detour (How Did I Get Where I Am After I Mapped Out My Life So Well?)?
- Wind Shift (USA West Coast Romances Book 4).
In Germany, qualitative research is still struggling in establishing itself in terms of instituationalisation, funding and its role in the regular methods training in sociology departments. In other countries, in the UK for example, this is different. As the contributions to this special issue demonstrate, qualitative research is establishing in different ways in most of the countries.
Anglo Saxon developments and publications are representing one version of qualitative research, local traditions and developments may give a different impression of what qualitative research is about and how it has defined its role and space in the discipline s. Qualitative Methods in Psychology: In Uwe Flick, Ernst v. Electronic Process Data and Their Analysis. Using Grounded Theory in Health Psychology. Method and Measurement in Sociology. The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. The University of California Press. Stefan Liebig is to improve secondary use of qualitative data.
April , University of Bremen There are still gaps in the institutional structure for archiving and sharing qualitative research data in Germany. This interdisciplinary workshop will evaluate past experiences with archiving qualitative data, discuss fundamental problems of archiving and secondary analysis, and identify the requirements to an archiving infrastructure for qualitative research data.
February , Berlin A forum headed by Dr. All presentation slides are available online. The aim was a systematic discussion on how to make qualitative data available for re-use in accordance with data protection and research ethics.
Related Qualitatives und quantitatives Interview in der Sozialforschung (German Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved