I Can..How Targeted Goals Can Enhance Music Education (Music Program Leaders Book 2)


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Come with easy-to-understand, clear budget reporting sheets and be prepared to explain any holes with recommendations for avoiding them in future. For example, if you overspent on building maintenance this year, you could suggest implementing more regular building checks to spot problem areas or negotiating better terms with your insurers and maintenance providers.

Tell them how you spent less money than a neighbouring school on catering as you phoned up colleagues at another school, and agreed to partner with them and a third school for greater purchasing power. Next, make a business case for the areas where you think the school should direct the money it has saved.

Show how increasing the number of teaching assistants for year 9 has boosted results, so it would make sense to spend more money on them for year 7 to help students progress earlier and save money further up the school. The same principles apply.

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The best way to explain the importance of financial accountability to your colleagues is by using real life scenarios. This will make you look approachable and the school finances transparent; it will also give you a chance to gauge their financial knowledge. Ask them what trips they want to plan this year and walk them through the steps they must take:. What did they find most challenging? Was there anything they would have liked more information on that you can now provide?

Old budgets to look at past performance, so you can learn from under- and over-spends. Pupil numbers census, local authority and feeder school lists. Be aware that neighbouring schools changing their admissions policies could also impact your numbers. Exam results, so you can identify which parts of the curriculum could benefit from more money, and which have previously.

Staffing requirements, including updated pay scales. Other resource requirements — money needed for insurance, maintenance etc. Delegated funding eg the dedicated schools grant usually has no strings attached to it. Devolved funding comes with conditions on how the money can be spent. For example, you must be able to demonstrate how pupil premium money is benefiting target students and that devolved formula capital funding is only being spent on long-term assets.


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Revenue funding should be used within a year on salaries, heating, stationery and routine repairs etc. Graph showing dummy numbers Accountability is also crucial in budgeting. Topics Teacher Network School leadership and management. Furthermore, to enhance the fitness achievement of students, school-based professional development should provide instruction on the integration of fitness testing into a curriculum and should include training in protocols, the interpretation and communication of results, and the setting and achievement of fitness goals and recommendations for developing healthy living habits for both students and their parents IOM, a.

Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students occurs within learning communities committed to continuous improvement, collective responsibility, and goal alignment. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students requires skillful leaders who develop capacity, advocate, and create support systems for professional learning.

Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students requires prioritizing, monitoring, and coordinating resources for educator learning. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students uses a variety of sources and types of student, educator, and system data to plan, assess, and evaluate professional learning. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students integrates theories, research, and models of human learning to achieve its intended outcomes.

Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students applies research on change and sustains support for implementation of professional learning for long-term change. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students aligns its outcomes with educator performance and student curriculum standards. Instructional opportunities for physical activity and physical education are mandated by most states.

In comparison with data prior to , more states have developed mandates for physical education at both the elementary and secondary school levels. However, most mandates lack a specified time allocation that ensures meeting the NASPE recommendation of and minutes per week for elementary and secondary schools, respectively McCullick et al. Some obstacles to the implementation of quality physical activity are listed in Box Class periods dedicated to physical education are declining at all school levels.

Existing discrepancies between policy and implementation with respect to specific time allocation contribute to a reduction in actual instructional time for physical education. There is a potential shortage of physical education specialists to influence the design and maintenance of quality physical education programs. Reductions in active learning time and opportunities in physical education contribute to potential student underachievement on national standards.

Disparities may exist in instructional opportunities for children in nontraditional learning settings. With physical education not being considered a core subject, and amid growing concern regarding the increase in childhood obesity and physical inactivity, several national studies and reports have emphasized the importance of implementing state statutes, laws, and regulations both mandating time requirements for physical education and monitoring compliance.

In the United States, school policies on curriculum and school-based activities are determined by local education agencies according to state laws governing educational activities. Decisions about what to teach, who will teach it, and what level of resources will be provided are made by the state, county or district, and school administration.

Of importance to this analysis is the distinction made between state statutes and administrative codes, which accords with the definition proffered by Perna and colleagues Using the NASBE database, the committee performed an overall analysis of policies on physical education and physical activity of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The analysis revealed that 45 states 88 percent mandate physical education; 22 states 23 percent require it.

A majority of states allow for waivers or substitutions for physical education see the discussion below. Fitness assessment is required in 15 states 29 percent , and other curricular assessments are required in 4 states 0. Forty-three states 84 percent require some degree of physical education for high school graduation, with a range of 0.


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  5. Although no federal policies requiring physical education presently exist, the above evidence shows that the majority of states require physical education. However, the number of days and time required vary greatly by state and local school district, as does the amount of physical education required for high school graduation. Given the reduced time for physical activity in school through recess, and absent the implementation of stronger policies, schools have not only the opportunity but also the responsibility to nurture in youth the skills, knowledge, and confidence to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

    The consensus among states indicated by the mandates for physical education summarized above, together with the discrepancies in specific policies, may suggest the need for general guidelines or a federal-level mandate that can serve to guide a collective effort to address the prevalence of childhood inactivity and obesity. In addition to policies that directly require offering physical education in schools, other policies support physical education opportunities in schools.

    In the U. Although school districts are required to include goals for physical activity in their local school wellness policies, they are not required to address physical education specifically. Some policies have contributed to the substantial reduction in the opportunities for school-age children to be physically active, such as by shortening or eliminating physical education classes. These reductions can be attributed to budget cuts and increased pressure for schools to meet academic standards imposed by the federal government.

    The No Child Left Behind Act of requires that states develop assessment and accountability measures to verify performance improvements in the subject areas of reading and mathematics P. Specifically, federal funding is now dependent on schools making adequate progress in reading and mathematics. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer statewide standardized annual tests for all students. Schools that receive Title I funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of must make adequate yearly progress in test scores e.

    If required improvements are not made, schools are penalized through decreased funding. If a school produces poor results for 2 consecutive years, improvement plans must be developed for the school. If a school does not make adequate progress for 5 consecutive years, a full restructuring of the school is mandated. In response to the act, schools have devoted more time in the school day to instruction in reading and mathematics.

    Unfortunately, 44 percent of school administrators reported that these increases in instructional time for reading and mathematics were achieved at the expense of time devoted to physical education, recess, art, music, and other subjects Center on Education Policy, , see Table The emphasis on high-stakes testing and pressure for academic achievement in the core subjects has had unintended consequences for other subjects throughout the school day. As discussed earlier, however, no evidence suggests that physical education and physical activity have a negative effect on student achievement.

    On the contrary, positive academic-related outcomes e. The Center on Education Policy conducted an analysis of survey data from school districts on the amount of time devoted to specific subjects to determine the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act. Shifts in instructional time toward English language arts and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of changes. A higher proportion of urban districts 76 percent than rural districts 54 percent reported such increases. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32 percent, on average.

    Eight of 10 districts that reported increasing time for English language arts did so by at least 75 minutes per week, and more than half 54 percent did so by minutes or more per week. Among districts that reported adding time for mathematics, 63 percent added at least 75 minutes per week, and 19 percent added minutes or more per week. Most districts that increased time for English language arts or mathematics also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods, including social studies, science, art and music, physical education, recess,.

    Among the districts that reported both increasing time for English language arts or mathematics and reducing time in other subjects, 72 percent indicated that they reduced the time for one or more of these other subjects by a total of at least 75 minutes per week. For example, more than half 53 percent of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies, and the same percentage 53 percent cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science Center on Education Policy, Districts that reported an increase in instructional time for elementary school English language arts spent an average of minutes per week on this subject before No Child Left Behind was enacted.

    After the act became law, they spent minutes per week. The average increase for English language arts was minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act Center on Education Policy, ; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table ITA. Table shows the specific amounts of time cut from various subjects in districts that reported decreases. For example, 51 percent of districts with a school in need of improvement reported decreased time in social studies, compared with 31 percent of districts with no school in need of improvement Center on Education Policy, The Shape of the Nation Report includes documentation of the multiple reasons students may be exempt from physical education classes.

    Thirty-three states permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for physical education. Although it would seem reasonable that some substitution programs such as JROTC or cheerleading might accrue physical activity comparable to that from physical education, these programs do not necessarily offer students opportunities to learn the knowledge and skills needed for lifelong participation in health-enhancing physical activities. No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools.

    Barriers other than the policies detailed above hinder efforts to improve and maintain high-quality physical education. This section reviews these barriers, along with some solutions for overcoming them. Table lists institutional and teacher-related as well as student-related barriers identified by various authors. They identified three categories of barriers: Jenkinson and Benson surveyed secondary school physical education teachers in Victoria, Australia, and asked them to rank order the barriers they perceived to providing quality physical education.

    The results are shown in Table Access to and lack of facilities a , h. Support from administration a , h. Insufficient number of PE staff a , e. Difficulty of providing safely planned and structured lessons d. High level of accountability for other subjects e. Confidence in teaching PE g , h , l. Personal school experiences in PE g , h. Low fitness levels, therefore potentially lower ability b. Jenkinson and Benson, Jenkinson and Benson also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: The teachers were asked to rank the top five barriers they perceived.

    Results are presented in Table Finally, Gallo and colleagues found that the greatest process barriers to assessing students in physical education were grading students on skill levels and abilities; time constraints; class size; and record keeping, especially when assessing students on skills, cognitive knowledge, and fitness. Two key barriers to physical education identified in the studies summarized above are staffing and funding.

    These barriers reflect a lack of support structure in schools for quality physical education. As noted earlier in this chapter, physical education is short staffed. State mandates have placed pressure on schools to preserve instructional resources for the high-stakes tested core subject areas at the expense of non-core subjects.

    For example, when a state mandates a maximum class size of 20 students per teacher in all core subjects, with noncompliance resulting in some form of penalty, an elementary school with an average of 25 students per teacher is forced to hire additional teachers in these subjects to meet the state mandate. Consequently, the school must shrink its teaching force in noncore subjects, such as physical education, to balance its budget.

    If noncore classes are to be preserved, their class sizes must increase, with fewer teachers serving more students. As a result, it becomes difficult to implement a quality program, and physical education teachers perceive their programs as being undervalued. School-Based Physical Education and Sports Programs GAO, , school officials cite budget cuts and inadequate facilities as major challenges to providing physical education opportunities for students.

    As noted earlier, lack of equipment and limited access to facilities are cited as top barriers in the study by Jenkinson and Benson see Tables and Students disengaged as a result of such practices may prefer sedentary activities to more active lifestyles. For many adolescents who have few opportunities to be active outside of the school day, quality physical education becomes the only option for physical activity.

    For students in large urban communities, physical education classes serve as a safe environment in which to be physically active under adult supervision in a structured environment. For students with dis-. For these reasons, it is crucial to overcome the above barriers to quality physical education. Some school districts have found ways to do so and provide robust physical education programs.

    The barrier of limited time during the school day can be overcome through creative scheduling that makes use of every minute of the day in a constructive manner. For example, Miami-Dade County Public Schools is the fourth largest school district in the United States, in a large urban minority-majority community with large budgetary shortfalls and attention in schools being diverted to academic requirements.

    Yet the district has always had daily physical education in its elementary schools taught by a certified physical education teacher. In addition, students receive school board—mandated recess for either 20 minutes two times per week or 15 minutes three times per week. Figures and show examples of elementary school teacher schedules that demonstrate how minutes of time for physical education can be incorporated successfully into any master schedule.

    Other positive examples, identified in the report Physical Education Matters San Diego State University, , include successful case studies from low-resource California schools. The report acknowledges, however, that advancing such opportunities will require policy changes at the state, district, and local levels. These changes include securing grant funds with which to implement high-tech physical education wellness centers, staff commitment to professional development, administrative support, physical education being made a priority, community support, use of certified physical education teachers, and district support.

    Identifying the need to reform physical education guided by evidence-based findings, the report concludes that 1 curriculum matters, 2 class size matters, 3 qualified teachers matter, 4 professional development matters, and 5 physical environment matters. If programs are to excel and students are to achieve, delivery of the curriculum must be activity based; class sizes must be commensurate with those for other subject areas; highly qualified physical education specialists, as opposed to classroom teachers, must be hired to deliver instruction; professional development in activity-focused physical education must be delivered; and school physical education facilities, such as playing fields and indoor gym space and equipment, must be available.

    A separate report, Physical Education Matters: Success Stories from California Low Resource Schools That Have Achieved Excellent Physical Education Programs San Diego State University, , notes that when funding from a variety of grant resources, including federal funding, became available, schools were able to transition to high-quality programs using innovative instructional strategies. Those strategies included well-.

    Sample is taken from a teacher schedule in a traditional elementary school. Administrative support was found to be a key factor in turning programs around, along with staff commitment and professional development. Having certified physical education teachers and making physical education a priority in the schools were other key factors.

    External factors further strengthened programs, including having school district support, having a physical education coordinator, and using state standards to provide accountability. Additional ways to overcome the barriers to quality physical education include scheduling time for physical education, ensuring reasonable class size, providing nontraditional physical education activities, making classes more active and fun for all students, and acknowledging the importance of role modeling and personal investment and involvement in participation in physical activity among staff.

    Still another way to overcome the barriers to quality physical education is to assist administrative decision makers and policy makers in understand-. The report Active Education: Physical education is a formal content area of study in schools, it is standards based, and it encompasses assessment according to standards and benchmarks.

    Select curriculum-based physical education programs have been described in this chapter to show the potential of high-quality physical education in developing children into active adults. Such models provide the only opportunity for all school-age children to access health-enhancing physical activities. Curriculum models for physical education programs include movement education, which emphasizes the importance of fundamental motor skills competence as a prerequisite for engagement in physical activity throughout the life span; sport education, which emphasizes helping students become skillful players in lifetime sports of their choosing; and fitness education, which imparts physical fitness concepts to students, including the benefits and scientific principles of exercise, with the goal of developing and maintaining individual fitness and positive lifestyle change.

    The emergence of a technology-focused fitness education curriculum and the new Presidential Youth Fitness Program offer further motivational opportunities for students to engage in lifelong physical activities. Because quality physical education programs are standards based and assessed, they are characterized by 1 instruction by certified physical education teachers, 2 a minimum of minutes per week for elementary schools and minutes per week for middle and high schools, and 3 tangible standards for student achievement and for high school graduation.

    Quality professional development programs are an essential component for both novice and veteran teachers to ensure the continued delivery of quality physical education. Because physical education is not a high-stakes tested content area, the implementation of supportive policies often is hindered by other education priorities. Although the above analysis indicates that 30 states In addition, an unintended consequence of the No Child Left Behind Act has been disparities in access to physical education and physical activity opportunities during the school day for Hispanic students and those of lower socioeconomic status.

    In high school, relying on students to elect physical education after meeting the minimum required credit hours one credit in all states but one appears to be unfruitful. Strengthening of school physical education has received support from the public, health agencies, and parents. Parents recently surveyed expressed favorable views of physical education. Additionally, many public and private organizations have proposed initiatives aimed at developing a comprehensive school-based strategy centered on curriculum physical education. Foundations for active lifestyles.

    Physical education in schools—both quality and quantity are important: Energy cost of exergaming: A comparison of the energy cost of 6 forms of exergaming. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 7: Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional development. In Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice, Jossey-Bass education series, edited by L. Video games and stories for health-related behavior change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34 1: Self-reported barriers to quality physical education by physical education specialists in Texas.

    Journal of School Health 75 8: Estimated energy expenditures for school-based policies and active living. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 44 2: Characteristics of PETE doctoral level institutions: Descriptions of programs, faculty and doctoral students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 30 2: Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of P. BMC Public Health 8 1: A comparison of high and low performing secondary physical education programs. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 22 5: The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity.

    Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 26 4: The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance. Center on Education Policy. Choices, changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the NCLB era. A call to restructure restructuring: Is in-class physical activity at risk in constructivist physical education? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 78 5: Content specificity of expectancy beliefs and task values in elementary physical education.

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 79 2: Influences of personal and lesson factors on caloric expenditure in physical education. Journal of Sport and Health Science 1 1: Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. The Teachers College Record 2: Physical activity for everyone: What every physical educator should know about promoting lifelong physical activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 21 2: Le Masurier, and D. European Physical Education Review 13 3: The status of high school online physical education in the United States.

    Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 31 1: Classroom teachers and the challenges of delivering quality physical education. Journal of Educational Research 98 4: Canadian Journal of Public Health 94 6: National physical education standards: A summary of student performance and its correlates. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 79 4: Journal of Sports Sciences 28 1: Linking teacher and student learning to improve professional development in systemic reform. Teaching and Teacher Education 19 6: Florida Virtual School physical education policy.

    The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 43 4: Assessment benefits and barriers: What are you committed to?

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    School-based physical education and sports programs. What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal 38 4: Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children. Developing school site wellness centers. Linking professional development to improvements in student learning.

    In Research linking teacher preparation and student performance: Teacher education yearbook , Vol. XII, edited by E. History of physical education. The addition of a video game to stationary cycling: The impact on energy expenditure in overweight children.

    Open Sports Sciences Journal 2: A review of research on sport education: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 16 2: Testing and grading in the psychomotor domain. Measurement concepts in physical education and exercise science. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. IOM Institute of Medicine. Accelerating progress in obesity prevention: Solving the weight of the nation.

    The National Academies Press. Fitness measures and health outcomes in youth. Barriers to providing physical education and physical activity in Victorian state secondary schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 35 8: Effects of a school-based weight maintenance program for Mexican-American children: Results at 2 years.

    Form and substance of inservice teacher education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 39 1: A comprehensive professional development effort. Biomedical Human Kinetics 4: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 81 2: Activity promoting games and increased energy expenditure. Journal of Pediatrics 6: Standards for professional learning: Movement—the content of physical education. Physical Education for Children A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons.

    Preventive Medicine 56 2: Research on professional development for teachers of mathematics and science: The state of the scene. School Science and Mathematics 99 5: The child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Medical Association Energy expended playing video console games: Pediatric Exercise Science 19 3: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 13 2: What makes teacher professional development work? The influence of instructional resources on change in physical education.

    Journal of In-Service Education 32 2: An analysis of state physical education policies. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 31 2: The preparation of physical educators: A public health perspective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 13 3: Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Journal of Teaching in Physical Education Effects of the catch physical education intervention: Teacher type and lesson location.

    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21 2: Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 9: Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children. What are the contributory and compensatory relationships between physical education and physical activity in children? The nature and influence of personal school experiences in PE. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 13 1: Student motivation in physical education breaking down barriers.

    Effects of leisure education versus physical activity or informal discussion on behaviorally disordered youth offenders. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 5 4: Strength training and leisure counseling as treatment for institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2 1: Fifteen years of promise in school-based interventions: Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: State School Health Policy Database.

    A summary of results. Physical activity for children: A statement of guidelines for children ages Moving into the future: National standards for physical education. Initial guidelines for online physical education: What constitutes a highly qualified physical education teacher. A survey of practicing K physical education teachers. School physical education program checklist—how does your program rate? Guidelines for elementary, middle, and high school physical education. Instructional framework for fitness education in physical education.

    Shape of the nation report: Status of physical education in the USA. National Physical Activity Plan. The National Physical Activity Plan. A physical activity agenda. Health-related fitness in sport education and multi-activity teaching. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 10 1: Promoting physical activity in children and youth: A leadership role for schools.

    Sedentary behaviour in youth.


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    6. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45 The association of state law to physical education time allocation in US public schools. American Journal of Public Health 8: School-based cardiovascular health promotion: Journal of School Health 60 8: Presidential Youth Fitness Program.

      Presidential Youth Fitness Program: Foundations of personal fitness. Effect of a mastery climate motor program on object control skills and perceived physical competence in preschoolers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82 2: Instructional climates in preschool children who are at risk.

      Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 80 3: A pilot test of the Latin active hip hop intervention to increase physical activity among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 26 4: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 62 2: The effects of a 2-year physical education program SPARK on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students: Sports, play and active recreation for kids. American Journal of Public Health 87 8: A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents.

      Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32 5: Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: A randomized controlled trial in middle schools. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24 3: Effect of peers and friends on youth physical activity and motivation to be physically active. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 34 2: San Diego State University. Success stories from California low resource schools that have achieved excellent P. A full report from The California Endowment. The impact of a six week exergaming curriculum on balance with grade three school children using Wii Fit Plus.

      International Journal of Computer Science in Sport 11 3: Activity and barriers in girls years old based on grade and maturity status. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 41 1: Quality PE through positive sport experiences. Introduction to physical education, fitness, and sport. Complete guide to sport education.

      Choices of game mode and challenge levels. International Journal of Pediatrics [epub ahead of print].

      Practice 1: Use summative assessments to frame meaningful performance goals.

      Motivating effects of cooperative exergame play for overweight and obese adolescents. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 6 4: Teaching spatial awareness to children. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 80 2: Personal fitness for you Winston-Salem, NC: Exergaming impact on physical activity and interest in elementary school children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 83 2: Learning science-based fitness knowledge in constructivist physical education.

      Elementary School Journal 2: Physical education, physical activity and academic performance. Physical education for the new millennium? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 10 2: Physical activity and physical fitness in children schooled at home and children attending public schools. Pediatric Exercise Science 16 4: The making of American physical education. How do they compare to other sedentary and physical activities?

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      Research on teacher preparation and professional development: Teacher reports on opportunity to learn: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 17 3: The ninth yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education part 1. University of Chicago Press. The new physical education: A program of naturalized activities for education toward citizenship.

      Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement. Physical inactivity is a key determinant of health across the lifespan. A lack of activity increases the risk of heart disease, colon and breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression and others diseases. Emerging literature has suggested that in terms of mortality, the global population health burden of physical inactivity approaches that of cigarette smoking.

      The prevalence and substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity has been described as a pandemic.

      Practice 2: Show criteria and models in advance.

      The prevalence, health impact, and evidence of changeability all have resulted in calls for action to increase physical activity across the lifespan. In response to the need to find ways to make physical activity a health priority for youth, the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Physical Activity and Physical Education in the School Environment was formed. Its purpose was to review the current status of physical activity and physical education in the school environment, including before, during, and after school, and examine the influences of physical activity and physical education on the short and long term physical, cognitive and brain, and psychosocial health and development of children and adolescents.

      Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. This report will be of interest to local and national policymakers, school officials, teachers, and the education community, researchers, professional organizations, and parents interested in physical activity, physical education, and health for school-aged children and adolescents.

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      Educating the Student Body: Looking for other ways to read this? Page Share Cite. Curriculum Models Given that curricula are determined at the local level in the United States, encompassing national standards, state standards, and state-adopted textbooks that meet and are aligned with the standards, physical education is taught in many different forms and structures. Movement Education Movement has been a cornerstone of physical education since the s. Sport Education One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop Siedentop, ; Siedentop et al.

      Fitness Education Instead of focusing exclusively on having children move constantly to log activity time, a new curricular approach emphasizes teaching them the science behind why they need to be physically active in their lives. Other Innovative Programs While several evidence-based physical education programs—such as the Coordinated Approach to Child Health CATCH and Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids SPARK —are being implemented in schools, many innovative programs also have been implemented nationwide that are motivating and contribute to skills attainment while engaging youth in activities that are fun and fitness oriented.

      I Can..How Targeted Goals Can Enhance Music Education (Music Program Leaders Book 2) I Can..How Targeted Goals Can Enhance Music Education (Music Program Leaders Book 2)
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