Bank of Japan Zentralbank. Norinchukin Bank, Japan seit , Genossenschaftszentralbank. Temasek Staatsholding von Singapur, Vorbild aller staatlichen Investments. Arab National Bank Saudi Arabia.
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Occupy Wallstreet weltweite Protestbewegung gegen Banken, D. Euro Zahlungen gerechnet; ca. Kerber, TU Berlin Europolis. Blinder, Princeton Notenbank- und Finanzexperte. Michael Woodford, Columbia University, N. Stephany Griffith-Jones, Columbia, N. Thomas Sargent, Stern N. Banking and Financial Institutions, Autor: Financial Markets and Institutions, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing. China Foreign Investment Research Institute. Arbeitsmarktkonferenz der Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar.
International Labor Office, Genf. Agency for Cultural Affairs Japan. Institut Arbeit und Wirtschaft, Uni Bremen.
The Backstage Handbook: An Illustrated Almanac of Technical Information Paul Carter - PDF
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George Borjas, Harvard gilt als der weltweit renommierteste Migrationsforscher. Becker, Chicago Sozialpolitik, Arbeitsmarktverhalten, Nobelpreis. Canadian International Labour Network. Institut for Labour Research, Essex. Institut of Population and Labor Economics, Peking. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Japan International Labour Foundation. Fortbildungsakademie der Wirtschaft FAW. Interessenverband Deutscher Zeitarbeitsunternehmen e. International Organization for Migration.
Industrial Workers of the World. Accenture Beratung bei Dienstleistungen, Management, Outsourcing. Kienbaum, Gummersbach Personalberatung, generell, Headhunter; Mittelstand. Manpower Zeitarbeit, Personalleasing, Personaldienstleistungen. Propartner, Weil am Rhein, Leiharbeitsfirma B. Jobleads, Hamburg exklusive Empfehlungs- und Karriereplattform. Online-Jobvermittlung oDesk Freiberufler, Freelancer. Freelancer, Australien Plattform, Freiberufler statt Angestellte.
Crowdflower Crowdwork, Microtasking; seit Mechanical Turk Crowdworker-Plattform von Amazon. Joberate, New York externe Dienstleistungsplattform; u. Erforschung von Abwanderungsbestrebungen; job seeking behavior. New Work, mobiler Schreibtisch. Gehaltsvergleichsportal Emolument; Crowdsourced Pay Data. Jobportal "Experteer" Karriereseiten von Unternehmen.
Seminar- und Weiterbildungsportal "Semigator". Portal "Einstieg in Arbeit". Human Ressource Management Netzwerk. Human Resource Internet Guide. Portal "Erfahrung ist Zukunft" Demographie. Senior Experten Service seit , ca. Softgarden Bewerbermanagement, Talent Network. Talentwunder Multichannel Sourcing, Such- und Filterfunktionen. CVlizer Automatisierte Verarbeitung von Bewerbungsunterlagen. Wandern - Regional Palatina Walking Boys. Bilder und Animationen zum Thema Wetter und Klima. Utopia Umweltplattform, strategischer Konsum. Folge des Klimawandels in Google Earth. BDI - Fachabteilung Umweltpolitik.
Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt u. Verband kommunaler Unternehmen e. European Environment Agency Kopenhagen. Wissenschaftliches Netzwerk zum Schutz des Regenwalddachs. Erneuerbare - Energien - Ministerium in Indien.webmail.wcs2015.org/qydyz-pas-cher-plaquenil.php
Tax treatment of co-operatives in Europe under the State aid rules | Pilar Alguacil - viwacylu.tk
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. Center for Sustainable Development. Ministry of Environment and Forests, India. Weltenergierat World Energy Council. World Energy Congress 20th, Rome US Energy Information Administration. European Renewable Energy Council. Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e. Association for the study of peak oil and gas.
Velcan Energy, Frankreich Wasserkraftenergie. ON stark in Russland beteiligt; nach Jahren mit Milliardenverlusten wird ab wieder in Wachstum investiert. Solon AG, Berlin Solarmodule. Gerenda, Troisdorf Solaranlagen, Solarberatung. Qinghai New Energy Group , Solarenergie. Suzlon, indischer Energiekonzern, vor allem Windanlagen. Vale, Brasilien Rio, Rohstoffe. Pentair, Schweiz Meeresentsalzung, Filter. Helmholtz- Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig - Halle.
Nationalakademie Leopoldina der Naturforscher, Halle seit , Klimawandel. Systain GmbH, Hamburg Nachhaltigkeitsberatung. Report Nicholas Stern , GB. World Radiation Center, Davos. The Stockholm International Water Institute. Earth Institute New York J. World Resources Institute, Washington D. International Institute for Sustainable Development Kanada. Information Center of Ministry of Ecology and Environment.
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa. Environmental Research Institute, Tokyo. WWF hat die "Earth - Hour" angeregt: Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt Deutscher Umweltpreis. Friends of the Earth Grassroots environmental network, Nichtregierungsorganisation. Sea Shepard Conservation Society. Rettet den Regenwald NGO. Social Entrepreneurship Schwab Foundation.
Global Marshall Plan Initiative 2 hoch 33! Ethikkommission Sichere Energieversorgung der Bundesregierung. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Terre des Hommes International. Initiative Freiheit und Verantwortung. Ethik im Wirtschaftsunterricht an Schulen. Memorial Internationale Menschenrechtsorganisation, seit , vor allem in Russland, Ukraine. Legambiente "Vista Mare", italienische Umweltschutzorganisation; deutsch: Wir sind bereits einen Schritt weiter", Ernst Ferstl, Aphoristiker. EU, Multis aus Nicht - Asien. Zentrale Einstiegsstelle zum globalen Lernen.
Internetportal des Fairen Handels in Deutschland. Global Young Leaders Conference. The International Maglev Board. How German are you? Welcome to Hell, G20, Hamburg. Invest in Germany GmbH. Interkulturelles Kompetenzzentrum Rheinland - Pfalz. World Economic Forum, Davos. United States Council for International Business. Ost-West-Wissenschaftszentrum der Uni Kassel. Centre for Global Cooperation Research, Duisburg. World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization. Bhagwati, Columbia University N. Robert Mundell, Columbia University N. International Economics, Monetary Theory, Integrationstheorie.
Business, eigenes Portal, RGE. Paul Krugman, seit N. Philippe Aghion, Harvard Economics. Posen; Jacob Kirkegaard; Jeromin Zettelmeyer. Middle East Institute, Washington. Social Watch, Montevideo, Uruguay. Observer Research Foundation, India. Inter Region Economic Network, Nairobi. Japan Policy Research Institute. Shanghai Institute for Foreign Trade Shift. China Society for World Economics.
Institute of World Economics, Beijing. Institut for Global Engagement, Beijing. Center for China in the World Economy. Initiative der Wirtschaft "Pro Standort Deutschland". Verband Entwicklungspolitik Deutscher Nichtregierungs-Organisationen e. Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden, Bonn. Overseas Development Institute, London. Afrika-Verein der Deutschen Wirtschaft e. Afrikanische Union African Union; 54 Staaten. Wirtschafts- und Sozialausschuss der EU. Vale do Rio Doce, Brasilien, Eisenerz. Embraer, brasilianischer Flugzeugbauer , kleine Flieger. Grupo Gerdau, brasilianischer Stahlkonzern.
Arca Continental, Mexiko Nahrungs- und Genussmittel. Rusal Russischer Aluminiumproduzent, Spitzenreiter in der Welt.
Gazprom Russland, Gas; im kalten winter Exportrekord. Sistema, Moskau Industrie- und Finanzdienstleistungen. Sberbank Corporate University; Lada bekannte russische Autofirma. Rand wurden von ca. Emaar Properties, Dubai Immobilienprojekt-Entwicklungsgesellschaft. Ostasien China, Japan, auch: Asien auf einen Blick. Ostasien - Institut e. Sonderforschungsbereich Ritualdynamik, Uni Heidelberg. Wirtschaftssinologie, Wirtschaftsjapanologie HS Bremen. Adam Schall Gesellschaft e. Fudan University, Shanghai Elitehochschule.
Fudan School of Management. Tsinghua School of Economics and Management. Nanjing University Partnerhochschule, sehr gut in Physik. Guangxi Normal University, Guilin Partnerhochschule. China Internet Information Center China. Chinesische Welt Blog und Portal. China Links Service und Infos. China Projekt Projektentwicklung in China. Internet Society of China. European Chamber of Commerce China, Beijing. All China Federation of Industry and Commerce ca. Deutsch - Chinesische Wirtschaftsvereinigung e.
Politik und Wirtschaft Chinas, Uni Trier chinapolitik. Botschaft von China in D. Provinz Fujian, Partnerprovinz von Rhld. Gansu-Provinz Besuch dort Hongkong Trade Development Council. Tsingdao Partnerregion der Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar. Official Website of the Beijing Olympic Games. PetroChina nach Marktwert Spitze: China National Petroleum Corporation. Netz von 50 Hertz, die Bundesregierung wehrt ab und steigt mit KfW ein; die Tochter Nari ist einer Gruppe in Europa beigetreten, die Standardisierungsprozesse vorantreibt: Portugal, Italien, Griechenland, Belgien, Deutschland.
Euro, vorher hatte man schon Pirelli aus Italien gekauft. China Communications Construction, Bauwirtschaft. Trina Solar andere bei Umwelt. Weibo, chinesischer Mikro-Blogger-Dienst wie Twitter. Tsinghua Chip-Hersteller, will Nr. Haier Liebherr , Qingdao; Chef: Galanz, Guandong Mikrowelle, Herde, Klimaanlagen. FAW seit , 1. Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co. Guangshou Automobile Group Co. Sany Heavy Industry Co.
Luxshare Precision Industry Co Ltd. Comac Mittelstreckenflugzeuge, seit , C Es ist direkter Konkurrent von Apple. Im Dezember wird die Finanzchefin von Huawei in Kanada festgenommen. Die USA verlangen die Auslieferung. Hisense, Qingdao Flachbildschirme, Mitarbeiter; baut inzwischen auch Handys. Marktes, Coca Cola abgelehnt. Tangshan Iron and Steel Co. Chinachem Group, Hongkong Unternehmen, Immobilien.
Tiens-Tianshi, Tianjin chinesische Heilmittel, Wurmgras. Dalian Machine Tool Group. China Life Insurance Versicherung. Ping An Versicherung, Sitz in Shenzhen, seit China Overseas Engineering Group Co. China Magnesium Corporation Ltd. Sunny Optical Technology Co. Ltd Technologie; seit Arne Weber, weltweit B.
Iwate University, Morioka Partnerhochschule. Nagoya City University Partnerhochschule. Akita International University Partnerhochschule. Tawasaki City University of Economics Partnerhochschule. Kansai Gaidai University Partnerhochschule.
Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo Partnerhochschule. Siebold University of Nagasaki. Gateway for all Japan information. Soziales Netzwerk zum Japanisch-Lernen Cerego. Verband der deutsch-japanischen Gesellschaften Berlin e. Prime Minister of Japan. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Meti bzw. Jetro Japan External Trade Organization. Nippon Keidanren Wirtschaftsdachverband Japans: Japan International Cooperation Agency. Botschaft von Japan in D. Japaninitiative der Deutschen Wirtschaft.
Deutsche Industrie- und Handelskammer in Japan. Japan - United States Friendship Commission. Bosch Group, Japan seit als Tochter, schon vorher seit Vertrieb. Heute seit 46 Generationen in Familienhand. Takata, Tokio Autozulieferer, z. Airbags; auch in Elterlein und Freiberg, Sachsen. Automotive Energy Supply Corp. Toshiba Elektronikkonzern; Bilanzen falsch, Gewinn 1,1 Mrd. Minebea Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, Motor.
Canon, Deutschland Fotoapparate, Drucker, Kopierer. Konica, Minolta, Deutschland Fotoapparate. Minoru Mori Mori Building. Kurita Water Industries Ltd. Jahrhunderts das erste Modell baute; Toiletten gab es aber schon im antiken Griechenland. Oriental Land, Transport und Touristik. Asahi Kasei, Chemiekonzern, Tech Kaihatsu, Japan seit ; Maschinenbau. Seiko, seit ; Uhren. Botschaft der Republik Indien, Berlin. Department of Commerce, India. National Portal of India. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.
Angkor Wat, Urwald-Heiligtum, Kambodscha. Avago Tech, Singapur Technologie. Hon Hai Precision Industries, Taiwan baut z. Acer, Taiwan IT, Computer. Largan Precision, Taiwan Technologie. Kalbe Farma, Indonesien Pharma und Biotechnologie. Bank Rankyat, Indonesien Bank. Charoen Pokphand, Thailand Nahrungsmittel. Advanced Info Service, Thailand Telekommunikation. CP All, Thailand Handel. True Corporation, Thailand Telekommunikation, Kabelnetze. Bharat Forge Indischer Autozulieferer und Schmiedekonzern. Aditya Birla Group Indien: Zement, Textilien, Chemie, Telekommunikation.
Ranbaxy indischer Pharmariese, Generika. Suzlon Energy, indischer Windturbinenhersteller 5.
Kotak Mahindra, Indien Bank. Kingfisher, indische Fluglinie und Brauerei. Pidilite Industries, Indien Chemie. Die Geschwindigkeit des wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Wandels in Asien ist dramatischer und rasanter als in jeder anderen Epoche oder Region der Welt", Pilny, Karl: Personalpolitik und Personalentwicklung im Mittelstand Perso-net. Deloitte Mittelstandsinstitut an der Uni Bamberg. Mittelstands-Institut an der Hochschule Kempten e.
Family Enterprise Research Academy. Entrepreneurial Management, Havard Business School. American Enterprise Institute, Washington. Washingtoner Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institut. Landesbank Rheinland - Pfalz. European Venture Capital Association. Ventizz AG Kapital, Finanzierung. Wagnisfinanzierer B-to-v Partners, St. United Equity p2p equity company, Peer to Peer-Plattform. Kickstarter die weltweit bekannteste klassische Crowdfunding-Plattform. Seedmatch seit ; hat als erste Plattform Crowdfunding in Deutschland angeboten.
Zentralverband des Deutschen Handwerks. Verband deutscher Maschinen und Anlagenbau e. Bundesverband Deutsche Start-ups e. Bundesverband der Freien Berufe in Berlin. Verband deutscher Unternehmerinnen VDU, seit Deutsches Forum Nachhaltiger Mittelstand. Bundesverband Deutscher Kapitalbeteiligungsgesellschaften Private Equity. Oikocredit thus extends credit to mar- ginalized people irrespective of their faith, culture, age or gender and favors the initiatives of women, as they are the backbone of their fami- lies and thus society as a whole.
Microfinance — Investing in People Sharing An uneven distribution of resources, wealth and power leads to a world of conflict. When people in the North, South, East and West are prepared to share what they have, respect each other and cooperate together, justice and peace can rule in the world. Oikocredit provides a mechanism for meaningful sharing. Grassroots Development is most effective when it stems from the grassroots. Integrity Respect between people implies honesty and truthfulness.
A code of con- duct for those who determine the Oikocredit course is part and parcel of this principle. Creation A wholesome ecosystem is the basis for life. Animals, species and bio- diversity should thus be preserved. Oikocredit believes that a healthy balance in nature can only be achieved in a world where resources and power are evenly spread. Social impact Financial performance is easily measured. Creating positive social impact is the key to our mission and a driving force behind all our activities.
Since , Oikocredit has touched the lives of hundreds of thousands of families in close to 70 dif- ferent countries. To assess our impact on those lives, we rely on formal assessments of social performance, as well as case studies of individual borrowers who have turned their lives around. Measuring Social Performance Social performance is a measure of how effectively we translate our social goals into practice.
The statistics we can extract demonstrate how our most important social goals are being met. To assist smaller MFIs that others might overlook or find too risky. To reach the poor in rural areas where fewer opportunities exist. To alleviate poverty by reaching out to as many clients as possible. Collectively, our microfinance partners have reached over 26 million clients. People At the heart of Oikocredit are the people who make it all possible. The commitment of our unique global network of professional staff and leaders is the key to our success. From our headquarters in the Netherlands to our support associations and regional and country of- fices, Oikocredit is run by a professional team spread across the globe.
These dedicated people share one common goal: Lean and professional By keeping our organization lean and professional, we ensure that our operation is as efficient as possible. In return, we are dedicated to delivering the maximum social impact from their investment. Regional Offices A key to our successful formula is maintaining close contact and proximity to all our project partners. To manage our operations in the field, we work through a global network of regional offices staffed by local professionals with extensive experience.
Our offices are the first point of contact for Oikocredit project partners. They promote Oiko- credit to target groups, identify potential project partners, assess the economic viability and social impact of a project proposal and prepare loan applications that are sent to Oikocredit International for approval. Once a loan has been disbursed, the regional managers closely monitor the project and assist if problems arise. Sie besteht aus am Gemeinwesen orientierten Unterneh- men oder Initiativen mit sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Zielen, wobei die sozialen dominieren Lang Bisher lassen sich grob zwei sozialwirtschaftliche Bewegungen in Deutschland unter- scheiden.
Ashoka, Schwab Foundation und es entstanden eigens auf soziales Unternehmertum ausgerichtete Medien z. Von den 49 identifizierten werden 19 soziale Unternehmen im Detail beschrieben. Dabei zeigt sich, dass vor allem Dienstleistungen im sozialen Bereich, die Bereitstellung sozialer Infrastruktur, Sport- und Freizeitangebote, die Gesundheitsbranche und die Kulturbranche die wichtigsten Handlungsfelder sozialer Unter- nehmen darstellen.
Die Formen der Arbeit vor Ort reichen dabei u. Sie stellen alternative Modelle von Wirt- schaft dar, die speziell vor dem Hintergrund der Weltwirtschaftskrise an Bedeutung gewonnen zu haben scheinen. Auch unter den 15 untersuchten Genossenschaften scheint sich die Rolle der Gesetzesnovellierung widerzuspiegeln. Weiterhin legt die Studie den Schluss nahe, dass sich genossen- schaftliche Strukturen und Prinzipien, wie Selbsthilfe, Selbstversor- gung und Selbstverantwortung, auch in Sozialunternehmen anderer rechtlich gefasster Formen wiederfinden.
Orientiert an idealtypischen Zielen in Industriegesellschaften definiert er sechs Widmungstypen Engelhardt Die Rechtsform allein ist kein hinreichender Indikator. Placing the Social Economy. New Trends in the Non-profit Sector in Europe: The Emergence of Social Entrepreneurship.
The Non-profit Sector in a Chan- ging Economy. Nationale Engagementstrategie der Bundesregierung. The Social Economy in the European Union.
The Worldwide Making of a Third Sector. Social enterprise in Europe: Recent Trends and De- velopments. Social Enterprise Journal, 4 3 , S. A Strategy for Success. Classification and Typologies of Cooperatives. International Handbook of Cooperative Organizations. Social Entrepreneurship — Zwischen Entrepreneurship und Ethik. Social Entrepreneurship und Social Business: Social Entrepreneurship — Social Business: Kassel University Press, Kassel. Institutional perspectives of local development in Germany and Eng- land: The European Social Economy: Concept and Dimen- sions of the Third Sector.
A Conceptual Synthesis from History to Present. Urban Studies, 42 11 , S. Wer sind Social Entrepreneurs in Deutschland? TechNet Technologie-Netzwerk Berlin e. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 69 2 , S. When looking at ways to tackle the economical crisis in Europe, the importance of local based initiatives is vital. In this article the characteristics of creative entrepreneurs are treated in order to discuss long term sustainable value creation.
The existence of cooperative networks is taken as an indication of a fundamental characteristic, namely the creation of independent interdependencies. In this paper four Dutch examples of cooperative initiatives are described. Cooperative structures can be supportive for sustainable and mutual value creation. By studying some examples we want to obtain insight in how, and to what extent this can be realized for creative entrepreneurs. Our aim is to find key factors to stimulate and facilitate sustainable and mutual value creation in creative cooperative networks.
The Creative Economy; the entrepreneurial dimension It has been widely accepted that the global economy is wrestling to avoid a global crisis. It is abundantly clear that entrepreneurship is important for economic growth, productivity, innovation and employ- ment, and many countries have made entrepreneurship an explicit 1 We want to thank Prof. As globalization reshapes the international economic landscape and technological change creates greater uncertainty in the world economy, entrepreneurship is believed to offer ways to help to meet new economic, social and environmental challenges OECD, The SME sector plays a vital role in employment creation and income generation and is, therefore, critical for achieving sustainable growth in any country.
At the height of the economic and financial crisis the SBA implementation in the first year focused on the following priorities: There is a solid reason for considering this specific economical sector. It is charac- terized by an inherent creativity Saris, The sector exists because it is in- volved in a permanent strive for developing new products, technologies and products that have not been here before Dos Santos Duisenberg, As a consequence innovation is a central topic Throsby, As such, it has the potential to contribute to the groundbreaking innova- tion that is needed for the transition towards a sustainable economy.
The sector is however characterized by a large number of very small initiatives. Within the Industries, however, over fifty percent is smaller than three individuals: Firstly, they operate under specific working conditions. Often regular working hours are not applicable. Multiple job-holding is a common formula, as the cultural workers need a minimum income for survival and for a degree of secu- rity. The sector shows specific dynamics of frequent job changes, often based on local networking, and that working on short term contracts is normal Towse R.
The share of inde- pendent workers is more than twice as high in the cultural sector as in total employment KEA, , p. There seems to be a paradox between the pivotal role of creative in- dustries and the complex and problematic situation of entrepreneurs in the sector. On the one hand, the creative industry is considered as a top sector, geared to drive the innovation we long for. On the other hand, fragmentation and lack of coherence result in only partial exploitation of the potential and hamper sustainable, long term value creation Eu- ropean Commission, Yet, at the same time the starting entrepreneur depends on sources of external initiatives, drives and inspiration.
In this sector the individual entrepreneur is looking for a situation in which he can combine his independent status with a social cooperative networking configuration. Cooperative networks are created and sustained for a number of reasons. The Creative Entrepreneur wants to create a product that is interesting for himself, yet that will also be appreciated by his peers, and will hold the potential of being bought by a potential client.
Hence, Creative Entrepreneurs are involved in networks of multiple and changing clients, competitors, colleagues, etc Gardner, Consequently, creative initiatives are developed within a cooperative context, that has the potential of sustainable value creation. Cooperatives and sustainable value creation As mentioned before, characteristics of creative entrepreneurs and their working circumstances hamper long term sustainable value creation. Sustainable value creation is economic value creation while creating at the same time social and societal benefits.
It is value crea- tion with a larger scope: This requires a non-linear, more dimensional approach. The focus is not only put on products or services that meet the needs of today. In creative design- and develop- ment processes also the possible effects of decisions on longer term are taken into account.
A sustainable entrepreneur is aware that he does not work in iso- lation but that he is connected with others in a social, cultural and natural environment. The living system can be the interconnected whole of a neighbourhood, city or region for example. The entrepreneur influences the system with his entrepre- neurial activities but he, and his company, are also influenced by the system itself. Sustainable value creation means that the relevant in- terests of other stakeholders in the system are also taken into account.
All partners who are involved in a value creation process are enabled to create value, not only the initiator. Value creation emerges from build- ing relationships and from identifying and expanding the connections between societal and economic progress Simanis, Sustainable value is mutual value: The described elements of sustainable value creation are summa- rized in Figure 1.
The model is inspired by and derived from the sus- tainable value framework of Hart and Milstein Hart, The ele- ments in the inner circle reflect the way we are used to think and act. The elements in the outer circle show how we extend our view when we look at the world as a living system with the aim of sustainable and mutual value creation. With their general objective of being strong together, cooperative networks and cooperatives seem to be a natural, organic, organizational structure that could facilitate sustainable value creation.
A cooperative structure is defined as a structured collaboration of members. Members keep their own responsibility, govern the cooperative together, being convinced that they can realize more together than each of them can reach alone Rabobank, Collaborating partners get access to larger or more important projects, while the democratic decision-making in cooperatives fits to their independence RABO Bank, Summarized overview of elements of sustainable value creation Also later Global Now Nu Future durable Interconnected Sustainable Also Also Here value Me elsewhere creation others Human Environment Mutual durable Also nature In this paper four examples of cooperative initiatives are described.
In two of them creative entrepreneurs play a role. In the other two examples municipalities play a major role. Our aim is to find key fac- tors to stimulate and facilitate sustainable and mutual value creation in creative cooperative networks. The focus is put on the potential for value creation. Whether or not an initiative really is sustainable cannot be identified or measured now. It will become clear later, in the future. The Creative Industries; urban indus- trial renewal Situation: We are not only in the centre of an economical predica- ment, but also confronted with a real-estate crisis.
Most mid-size and larger European cities are stuck with abandoned industrial areas. Ur- ban development is changing rapidly. The requirements of a labour-in- tensive mass-production based industrialization are totally different from those of high-technology focused and knowledge-based devel- opment Landry, Often these areas hold valuable historical buildings, in the process of being qualified as valuable industrial heritage.
Yet, in the present financial crisis private investors are not eager to invest in torn-down areas in decay. In many cases the local urban developers turn to the CCIs for a number of reasons. The owners want to have their properties being in use and occupied during the day-time. And the local inhabitants in the surrounding neighbourhoods are pleased with the social fabric that is created as a spin-off of the creative activities. The quest for reasonable housing; the cooperative model in CPO projects for consumers Situation: The present economical crisis has not only taken its toll on urban industrial areas.
But it has also created a situation in which it is hard to get financial funding for housing initiatives. Both finan- cial investors, housing corporations and individual families alike, are having problems financing their housing plans. With new, restrictive bank rules, as a result of the bank crisis in , most banks are very hesitant to invest or initiate loans for real-estate development.
To decrease the loss and to stimulate the housing market, new initiatives are being developed. Several municipal 2 We can point at the steel industry in the German Ruhrgebiet, the French and Belgian car industries, the petrochemical area in the Rotterdam harbour, etc. In these cases cooperative housing projects are initiated. The Dutch national government has stimulated these initiatives by changing the building requirements. Within the Dutch CPO concept, future residents join together in a co- operative organization and have the ability to design, develop and build their own apartments or houses.
CPO Projects combine the individual initiatives with collective project development and -management. The resulting houses meet individual needs and are often built on a lower cost basis than those with traditional project development. Often these initiatives strive for the creation of sustainable build- ings.
In some cases additional funding is created, based on the financial support available for the realization of sustainable and Zero-energy buildings. As mentioned earlier, sustainable and mutual value emerges from relationships instead of from products. CPO projects are examples of multi-party collaborations such as municipality, prosumers producing consumers , architects, builders, financial economic advisors bank. In the current economic- and real estate situation they share the sense of urgency in order to create movement in the housing market.
This shared interest appears to be a key success factor. It is in the interest of all participants that the project is being realized and that solutions for obstacles are found. Therefore, it can occur that unusual solutions are needed or the participants have to act across the borders of their formal role in the project. This is where mutuality emerges and where mutual value is created Smit, Prosumers, who create and build their houses together, also feel more involved in the shared surround- ings: Clusters for creative entrepreneurs Situation: The double-sided need of creative entrepreneurs — com- bining individual freedom and cooperative networking — has lead to a number of cultural and creative cooperative initiatives.
One of the specific characteristics of the CCIs is that creative entrepreneurs often combine their working spaces with their living area. They often work and live in the same building. Urban planners use the CCIs in order to create a local creative cluster. The advantages of clustering are well known: In several places cooperative entrepreneurial breeding places have been initiated, often in the form of creative incubators and beehives. Creative entrepreneurs operate here as an individual actor within a co- operative cluster.
In working together, low-cost housing-initiatives can be realized. Interested potential creative entrepreneurs come together in the initial phase in order to discuss their individual perspectives. As many large cities, Amsterdam is at the brink of bankruptcy. It is faced with a situation in which municipal funds are lacking, and where both private investors and financial institutions no longer in- vest in urban area development. Amsterdam has therefore chosen to develop abandoned industrial harbor areas by stimulating grass-root cooperatives.
Recent research on success factors of cooperatives of small enter- prises shows that increasing the chance on work or on projects is the most important reason for participation Potts, The Amsterdam Municipality has noted that these cooperative initiatives are relatively successful, especially in the current economical crisis. Given the present economical situation, the Cooperative model can serve as a tempting example of innovative en- trepreneurial initiatives. The earlier carefully choreographed redevelopment to the south banks of the IJ waterway —developed in earlier prosperous times — is now making way for the gradual transformation of the Northern Banks of the IJ.
Conventional methods are inadequate for the development of transformation areas, so a solution has been sought in a flexible approach that rallies together all the disciplines and parties in an in- tensive collaborative effort. The City Council is invest- ing in extra infrastructure and in improving the quality of the public space, but it is only pursuing an active land development strategy for the sub-sectors where it is investing directly or is responsible for the allocation of land.
These rules present a number of urban development criteria, such as ensuring sightlines towards the water, maximum construction heights, building lines, the functions of buildings and public space. Alongside the rules of play, a land development plan was needed for great part of the area. The plan is nevertheless extremely flexible in its phasing. The room for manoeuvre within the rules of play for transformation provokes two kinds of reaction: Five years on, it seems that the flexible framework is no longer wholly fit for purpose, particularly because the office pro- gram has been scrapped due to the financial crisis.
However, it seems that Buiksloterham has come through these changed circumstances 7 amsterdam. The approach to Buiksloterham is already achieving maximum effect with a minimum of means for the City Council, which is investing in just a third of the area but has already succeeded in attracting investment from private parties. The project has now entered the following phase and implementation at the scale of individual lots has begun.
It is interesting to notice that not only the urban planners are look- ing at these cooperative models. Also the banking institutions have been persuaded to support these initiatives with specific targeted mortgages. It seems that in times of financial crisis the cooperative models offer an alternative way of urban area development.
Discussion As stated, it seems that cooperative initiatives do contribute to the realization of sustainable and mutual value creation. Especially in times of financial crisis and limited resources — both in financial and in environmental terms — such initiatives offer innovative solutions for the times to come. It is indeed the question whether these cooperative initiatives are only initiated because of the widely felt need of urgency.
Should coop- erative initiatives be seen as a temporary intermediary solution, or do they indeed offer a wider perspective, striving for a long-term sustain- able society? Creative Sustainable Urban Development 5. Conclusions Also in the present Western European context a number of new ap- proaches can be identified, using mutual value creation as a guiding principle. These cooperative initiatives do offer at first site an answer to the socio-economical and environmental problem that we are faced with.
More examples need to be studied to identify and understand key factors for their success. The near future will tell whether and how these creative initiatives will offer sustainable ways of tackling the times to come. A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship. Creating an Innovative Europe. The wealth of networks: How social production trans- forms markets and freedom. Creative clusters and innovation. Putting creativity on the map. Design for Sustainable Change. Can the Creative Industries lead us to a sustainable future? Creative Industries Knowledge Transfer Network.
Dos Santos Duisenberg, E. Creative Economy Report A feasible Development Option. SMEs in the crisis: Green Paper; Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries. Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries. American Journal of Small Business, 12 4 , Creative industries; colourful fabric in multiple dimensions. Capitalism at the crossroads. Next generation busi- ness strategies for a post-crisis world.
The economy of culture in Europe. Study on the entrepreneurial dimension of cultural and creative industries. A Toolkit for Urban Innovators. Measuring Entrepreneurship; A Collection of Indicators. Creative Industries and Economic Evolution. Creativity as competitive factor for urban regions. How the creative economy is changing the city pp. Needs, needs everywhere, but not a BoP market to tap.
Hart, Next generation business strategies for the Base of the Pyramid. Innovation from the inside out. A Handbook of Cultural Economics. Decision 21 april Besluit van 21 april tot uitvoering van de Wet ruimtelijke ordening. The Hague, the Netherlands: Transformation of the Northern Banks of the IJ: Eng- lish summary, at: Rotterdam City Harbors Stadshavens , at: Co-operative management and co-operative governance: It will cover seven sections: First, the context, second, the analytical framework and research questions, third, the theoretical framework, four, the methodology, five, the empirical framework, six, the results of this research: This said, our research relies on a con- text of in-depth on going society changes as Gabriel Colletis highlighted in This author has got a modern approach to economic and politi- cal situations.
He explained that goals for democracy and knowledge would link the economy to society to protect employees from damage and the causes of psychosocial risks at work whilst ensuring financial profitability.
Through a people-centred business model, co-operative enterprises have played a key role in international development for over years, contributing to the development of an estimated 3 billion people world- wide. Out of thirty nine thousands Say it is a singular company with a strategic general assembly where: In , national averages show that profits were allocated in the following ways: Analytical framework and research questions 2.
I observed inconsistencies and tensions at three levels: So we ask ourselves: Which are the best practises? Which model for 3. A critical and cooperative approach This research frame takes into account two approaches: A multi-disciplinary analysis also helps to shed light on the political and economic SCOP governance concept at its origin. Consequently, we propose to study this governance as a multi- paradigmatic concept, and also to correlate Governance centres with corporate governance, which bring under scope of study altogether urban governance, good governance, global governance and European governance according to Kazancigil and Hermet The political and economic origins of western cooperative governance can be found in the cameralism, specifically in Europe and France.
A new governance concept is in line with New Economic Regulation NER and integrates all forces implied in the organiza- tional, economic and environmental decision-making process. However these governance models all refer a unique economic model. To have a better understanding of legal specificities required by the cooperative governance, we have studied the cooperative research pro- ducing by Barbeyer D.
They are businesses looking for a joint-enhanced successful trading. In fact, equal profit- sharing is an efficient way for keeping it business fair and worthwhile. Clearly, the co-operative makes the choice of sharing-profits amongst members rather than rewarding outside investors.
To achieve a successful organisation with this structure dual, the model of cooperative balance according to D. This is the reason why I have studied this subject. We have studied governance, human resources management and strategy in France from a cross referenced perspective, considering: A tryptical approach Altogether our professional courses, our studies and empirical knowl- edge about research fields invite us to adopt a qualitative methodology that places far more value on words than numbers, referring to: This pleads for from action to research, from experience to expression, and for the introduction of the results of the research into the actions pur- sued.
For me, what is about is not a transformation from actress to author but a reconciliation of the actress with the author. We intend to show that: The originality and complexity of this tryptical approach takes place in the field of internal research I mean my personal research as ac- tress according to Mintzberg as well in the field of public research I mean my universitary research. My exploratory reasoning has consisted of several types of actions: This reasoning helped us to recognize the existence of: The empirical frame It covers a representative sample panel of sixteen SCOP, small and medium sized businesses in Rhone Alpes, a dynamic region due to its geographical situation in the Rhone Valley and its legacy of an anarchist history.
All these SCOP share innovative ideas and practises in the field of governance or management or strategy but including differences, namely: We met thirteen men and four women in all. A woman and a man participated together in the interview in only one case. It is not only a lack of understanding, but also real op- position between these two groups. For example, the refusal, decided to save the business, of salary blockage. For example the shareholders would oppose new shareholders and organize a veto for new candidates.
The in-house putsch 3. The contested leader 5. He or she is often re-elected even though he or she is still sitting on an ejector seat. The board con- stitutes for all the managers and co-operators a guardrail against potential abuse of power and then shall contribute to a better living together. It was a good experience which also gives me the opportunity of study- ing my thesis and working at the same time.
It creates an opportunity for debates between General Assemblies and offers the possibility to make suggestions and clarify goals in view of the next General Assembly meeting. To build up good relations within the SCOP, it is recommended to anticipate possible tensions, to spot them when they happen, to analyse them in the context to find solutions.
It is really a 3 sided challenge: The collective, individual as well as the territorial identities are likely to be affect , which requires to act for preventing a co-op splitting up. A genuine co-operative management is needed for efficient co-operative governance. This could be the subject of a future presentation. Finally, others questions are still open. How internal co- operation can develops into internal co-operation?
This refers to the mutualisation of SCOP which can be named the coo-petition. Politique du performatif Editions Amsterdam, Paris. Son utopie et sa pratique. Critical studies on men and queer theories, disponible sur www. Mondragon Unibertsitatea , Since , surveys have shown that the economic efficiency of these organ- isations is directly linked to their cooperative status.
However, these co-ops are often threatened in an environment that is going more and more global. In practical terms, it is more and more difficult for them not to neglect their economic performance falling into militancy, risk of bankruptcy and, at the same time, not to give up on their political objectives economistic tendancy, risk of trivialisation.
But, and here is the core issue of this paper: The district of Roanne , inhab- itants is located in France, kilometres from Lyon, in the North West of the Rhone Alps region, just beside Burgundy and Auvergne. The textile industry was its traditional industrial activity and it has undergone a few changes over the last twenty years1. Even if these chosen constraints based on ecology and cooperation have enabled the company to keep a niche market in this hypercompetitive environment, they were not enough to ensure a 1 Houssel J.
The new business still relies on the same ecological values — they sell organic cotton — and solidarity — as all the manufacturing process is subcontracted to local toll manufacturers — but they have been better at taking into account the market constraints and have not opted for a co-op status. This is the very role of social and solidarity-based business incubator that we are going to present in this paper.
Then we will present the impact of such an initiative on the local econ- omy development of new niche markets, resistance to globalisation, preservation of the textile industry and of the local know how But, in this area, mutualistic and cooperative movements have been developing since the nineteenth century. The local economy is still linked to the textile and clothing industry, the main industrial sector until The trend in local private sector jobs can be clearly noticed on the following graph total employment in dark, industrial sector in pink, textiles in green and service sector in blue.
Figure 1 Private sector employment in the Roannais Source: Most of the leading manufacturers in the region have chosen to focus on creation and marketing and to outsource the bulk of their produc- tion to low-wage countries. They produce prototypes in their workshops and call on local subcontractors for restocking and updating4. Strategic map of textiles in Roanne Competitive realignment is indisputably the dominant strategy of local businesses.
In , a few sub-con- tractors, who had to close down their factories, decided to develop a common, innovative strategy focused on a niche market: In hypercompetitive sectors such as textiles, specializing in organic cotton can loosen the constraints of competitiveness and replace it with a broader concept of performance.
Its aim is to produce exchange values The cooperation is both internal and external: More- over, it had a micro market. Above all, the large and medium retailers took over the sales of organic textiles. And last but not least, the world 5 Haynes I. The new business turnover: CNB was given press coverage, in the local and regional press but also in scientific literature7. It also shows how difficult it is for co-ops in a plural economy not to neglect their economic performance risk of bankruptcy and, at the same time, not to abandon their political goals risk of trivialization.
The solution is perhaps to look for a new definition of the concept of performance, that must be defined as both the production of an ex- change value economic added-value and the production of social and political values social added-value. Une approche castoriad- isienne: Plan de mandat , Roanne, p. Introduction In an era of turbulence and domino-effects in the globalized economic environment of interconnected institutions, established economic en- tities are failing and local societies are challenged for sustainability.
Main Street banking functions with an unsighted side that underpins local communities: An economic policy gearing towards societal value creation and sticking to clear business principles is emerging at a community level. Modern Homo Communicans seems to prefer to be connected to, and stay in contact with his surrounding world. Mutuality and social cohe- sion through sustainable finance, especially at a decentralized local level, function as security mechanisms in the current era of turbulence. Chang analyzes how social networks are the most frequent sources of saving and investment information and he claims that they are most utilized by those who have the least wealth.
As this research suggests, connect- edness rather than expertise prevails in important matter DiMaggio et 1 We want to thank Prof. This paper argues that connectedness resides in the network struc- ture of establishing a cooperative and functioning as a cooperative. Fur- thermore, the paper explains the logos of the individual that becomes the logic of mutuality via network connections embedded in the ethos of cooperatives with the pathos of collective orientation.
In an era of crisis, network orientation sustains collective orientation and ethical values, as a greater good. Greek collective orientation is manifested in his- tory when a common goal is set, directs various aspects of every day ethos in local communities. Network Identification and Network Indicators The complex modern life world is primarily created by relations and the behavioral patterns that derive from them. A network is a group of relationships, a set of socially relevant members connected with one or more relations. Network indicators describe what a node is, what type of connection the nodes have and what the direction and the intensity of those connections are.
In the context of the current paper, coopera- tion as behavior is examined in the network formation of cooperative banks in local economy of Greece. When we speak about social life net- works, as considered in the current piece, complexity is present. Indica- tors assist in identifying a network and understanding the specialized and critical function of connectivity as a survival strategy.
Social relations cover affinity and kinship ties, commonly de- fined roles and familiarity in feelings and mutual awareness; a family member, a friend, a schoolmate, a significant other could be examples of such relations. Interactions are ties based on behavior of individu- als. Flows are unidirectional or bi-directional exchanges or transfers between nodes for resources, information or influence.
Flows, also, occur in the context of social relations where different kinds of support and companionship are manifested when transactions are involved. In so- cial network analysis causality is located in the social structure and not in the individual. So, behavior embedded in networks is a characteristic indicator of network effect and scope.
Each member of a group rarely shares the same relation to the group. So, interaction and strength of connection are characteristics that upgrade the groups to networks, and introduce market as communities. Principal types of data that we meet in society are attribute data that relate attitudes, opinions and behavior with individuals and groups, measured with values of variables; relational data refers to contacts, connections, ties and attachments which relates individual elements themselves.
A third type of data comprises the ideational data that describe the meanings, motives, definitions and typifications themselves. The concept of social network analysis has been an emerg- ing field, due to the notion of relationship between social entities, its importance and the patterns associated to these relationships. The structure formed is measured with structural variables. Social net- works use distinctive indicators to present themselves: These are the members of cooperatives. The need for service and trans- action for social benefit drives cooperative banks.
Katerinakis finite set of actors and the relations defined on them as lasting pat- terns of relations among actors. The partnership approach applied in cooperative banks is inclusive to customer-members, employee- members, leadership-members, and local society at large. Key theoretical and terminological motivations rise with the intro- duction of domain-specific terminology like social group, isolation, popu- larity, liaison, prestige, balance, transitivity, clique, subgroup, social cohesion, social position, social role, reciprocity, mutuality, exchange, influence, dominance, conformity.
The whole of social life is a set of points some of which are joined with lines to form a network of rela- tions with reciprocity, intensity and durability. Categorical indicators of transmission, adaptation, binding and exclusion describe the quality of a network Borgatti et al Transmission happens when network connections are treated as pipe- lines for the flow of jobs, support, identities, diseases, knowledge and service. Network structure adaptation happens when actors make similar choices because of their position following constraints and op- portunities.
Binding happens when a network commits itself to act as a complete whole. The internal structure of the network affects collective action, coordination and community work. Exclusion happens when the existence of one tie connection does not allow the existence of another tie and affects the relations with other nodes. In networks of markets, exclusion is manifested with the availability of bargaining partners. Con- nections are more likely established when proximity from one node to another is close; then locality is established.
Nodes with common social attributes, needs, and market transactions increase the probability of connection and realize homophily. Homophily increases the likelihood of connection between nodes at an individual or collective level Shalizi and Thomas, ; McPherson et al, When nodes are connected in pairs then mutual regulation is enforced, both in moral and economic terms. Self-regulation is a kind of discipline instrumental for institu- tional arrangements in Ostrom terms Two important indicators of network structure are network density and network centrality to explain aspects of behavior in the business world.
The combination of these outcomes sets lower and upper bounds on network centrality. Density describes the gen- eral level of linkage among the point in the graph. Density depends on inclusiveness and the degrees of its points. Inclusiveness refers to the number of points that are included within the various connected parts of a network Granovetter Density denotes how members of a network are able to sustain their connections, as relations.
For example, commitment to a banking relation may be more intense than a commitment to a relation of an acquaintance. This means that any network of banking relations is likely to have a lower density than any network of awareness relations. Also, changes at the individual level of contacts result into a continuous transformation of the density of global features of the network.
Understanding networks means to identify the most important actors, ties and relations. The idea of centrality is defined as relation- ship between structure and influence in transactions within small groups, especially in market terms. Centrality is anchored with point centrality and centralization is used to describe particular properties, like prestige, in the graph structure that represents a network. The question on centrality was moved in governance issues, as the level of democratization of society through decentralization of decision making and in community organizations and planning.
In financial cooperatives, membership participation and direct decision-making promote democratic corporate governance and managerial improvement. Networks are wholes that determine the nature of their parts and have properties distinct from their parts, as members or actors. Map- ping a network visualizes information that show how the network is structured and how it operates.
Closeness measures the ability of an actor to access other actors of the network and monitor their status.
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