Dante was a friend of his father. Petrarch spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa , near Florence. He spent much of his early life at Avignon and nearby Carpentras , where his family moved to follow Pope Clement V who moved there in to begin the Avignon Papacy. He studied law at the University of Montpellier —20 and Bologna —23 with a lifelong friend and schoolmate called Guido Sette. Because his father was in the profession of law, he insisted that Petrarch and his brother study law also.
Petrarch however, was primarily interested in writing and Latin literature and considered these seven years wasted. Additionally, he proclaimed that through legal manipulation his guardians robbed him of his small property inheritance in Florence, which only reinforced his dislike for the legal system. He protested, "I couldn't face making a merchandise of my mind," as he viewed the legal system as the art of selling justice. Petrarch was a prolific letter writer and counted Boccaccio among his notable friends to whom he wrote often.
After the death of their parents, Petrarch and his brother Gherardo went back to Avignon in , where he worked in numerous clerical offices. This work gave him much time to devote to his writing. With his first large-scale work, Africa , an epic in Latin about the great Roman general Scipio Africanus , Petrarch emerged as a European celebrity. On April 8, , he became the second  poet laureate since antiquity and was crowned by Roman Senatori Giordano Orsini and Orso dell'Anguillara on the holy grounds of Rome's Capitol.
He traveled widely in Europe, served as an ambassador, and has been called "the first tourist "  because he traveled just for pleasure,  and the reason he climbed Mont Ventoux. He encouraged and advised Leontius Pilatus 's translation of Homer from a manuscript purchased by Boccaccio , although he was severely critical of the result. Petrarch had acquired a copy, which he did not entrust to Leontius,  but he knew no Greek ; Homer , Petrarch said, "was dumb to him, while he was deaf to Homer".
Disdaining what he believed to be the ignorance of the centuries preceding the era in which he lived, Petrarch is credited or charged with creating the concept of a historical " Dark Ages ". In it, Petrarch claimed to have been inspired by Philip V of Macedon 's ascent of Mount Haemo and that an aged peasant had told him that nobody had ascended Ventoux before or after himself, 50 years before, and warned him against attempting to do so. The nineteenth-century Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt noted that Jean Buridan had climbed the same mountain a few years before, and ascents accomplished during the Middle Ages have been recorded, including that of Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne.
Scholars  note that Petrarch's letter   to Dionigi displays a strikingly "modern" attitude of aesthetic gratification in the grandeur of the scenery and is still often cited in books and journals devoted to the sport of mountaineering. In Petrarch, this attitude is coupled with an aspiration for a virtuous Christian life, and on reaching the summit, he took from his pocket a volume by his beloved mentor, Saint Augustine, that he always carried with him.
For pleasure alone he climbed Mont Ventoux, which rises to more than six thousand feet, beyond Vaucluse. It was no great feat, of course; but he was the first recorded Alpinist of modern times, the first to climb a mountain merely for the delight of looking from its top.
Or almost the first; for in a high pasture he met an old shepherd, who said that fifty years before he had attained the summit, and had got nothing from it save toil and repentance and torn clothing. Petrarch was dazed and stirred by the view of the Alps, the mountains around Lyons , the Rhone , the Bay of Marseilles. He took Augustine 's Confessions from his pocket and reflected that his climb was merely an allegory of aspiration toward a better life.
As the book fell open , Petrarch's eyes were immediately drawn to the following words:. And men go about to wonder at the heights of the mountains, and the mighty waves of the sea, and the wide sweep of rivers, and the circuit of the ocean, and the revolution of the stars, but themselves they consider not.
I closed the book, angry with myself that I should still be admiring earthly things who might long ago have learned from even the pagan philosophers that nothing is wonderful but the soul, which, when great itself, finds nothing great outside itself. Then, in truth, I was satisfied that I had seen enough of the mountain; I turned my inward eye upon myself, and from that time not a syllable fell from my lips until we reached the bottom again.
James Hillman argues that this rediscovery of the inner world is the real significance of the Ventoux event. Arguing against such a singular and hyperbolic periodization, Paul James suggests a different reading:. Petrarch spent the later part of his life journeying through northern Italy as an international scholar and poet- diplomat. His career in the Church did not allow him to marry, but he is believed to have fathered two children by a woman or women unknown to posterity. A son, Giovanni, was born in , and a daughter, Francesca, was born in Both he later legitimized. Giovanni died of the plague in In the same year Petrarch was named canon in Monselice near Padua.
Francesca married Francescuolo da Brossano who was later named executor of Petrarch's will that same year. In , shortly after the birth of a daughter, Eletta the same name as Petrarch's mother , they joined Petrarch in Venice to flee the plague then ravaging parts of Europe.
A second grandchild, Francesco, was born in , but died before his second birthday. Francesca and her family lived with Petrarch in Venice for five years from to at Palazzo Molina ; although Petrarch continued to travel in those years. Between and the younger Boccaccio paid the older Petrarch two visits. The first was in Venice, the second was in Padua. The house hosts now a permanent exhibition of Petrarchian works and curiosities; among others you find the famous tomb of Petrarch's beloved cat who was embalmed.
On the marble slab there is a Latin inscription written by Antonio Quarenghi: Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore: Maximus ignis ego; Laura secundus erat. Arcebam sacro vivens a limine mures, Ne domini exitio scripta diserta forent; Incutio trepidis eadem defuncta pavorem, Et viget exanimi in corpore prisca fides. Petrarch's will dated April 4, leaves 50 florins to Boccaccio "to buy a warm winter dressing gown"; various legacies a horse, a silver cup, a lute, a Madonna to his brother and his friends; his house in Vaucluse to its caretaker; for his soul , and for the poor; and the bulk of his estate to his son-in-law, Francescuolo da Brossano, who is to give half of it to "the person to whom, as he knows, I wish it to go"; presumably his daughter, Francesca, Brossano's wife.
This arrangement was probably cancelled when he moved to Padua, the enemy of Venice, in The library was seized by the lords of Padua , and his books and manuscripts are now widely scattered over Europe. Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere "Songbook" and the Trionfi "Triumphs".
However, Petrarch was an enthusiastic Latin scholar and did most of his writing in this language. His Latin writings include scholarly works, introspective essays, letters, and more poetry. He translated seven psalms, a collection known as the Penitential Psalms.
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Petrarch also published many volumes of his letters, including a few written to his long-dead friends from history such as Cicero and Virgil. Cicero, Virgil, and Seneca were his literary models. Most of his Latin writings are difficult to find today, but several of his works are available in English translations.
Petrarch collected his letters into two major sets of books called Epistolae familiares " Letters on Familiar Matters " and Seniles " Letters of Old Age " , both of which are available in English translation.
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These were published "without names" to protect the recipients, all of whom had close relationships to Petrarch. His "Letter to Posterity" the last letter in Seniles  gives an autobiography and a synopsis of his philosophy in life. It was originally written in Latin and was completed in or - the first such autobiography in a thousand years since Saint Augustine. While Petrarch's poetry was set to music frequently after his death, especially by Italian madrigal composers of the Renaissance in the 16th century, only one musical setting composed during Petrarch's lifetime survives. This is Non al suo amante by Jacopo da Bologna , written around On April 6, ,  after Petrarch gave up his vocation as a priest, the sight of a woman called "Laura" in the church of Sainte-Claire d' Avignon awoke in him a lasting passion, celebrated in the Rime sparse "Scattered rhymes".
There is little definite information in Petrarch's work concerning Laura, except that she is lovely to look at, fair-haired, with a modest, dignified bearing. Laura and Petrarch had little or no personal contact. According to his "Secretum", she refused him because she was already married. He channeled his feelings into love poems that were exclamatory rather than persuasive, and wrote prose that showed his contempt for men who pursue women. Upon her death in , the poet found that his grief was as difficult to live with as was his former despair.
Later in his "Letter to Posterity", Petrarch wrote: I certainly wish I could say that I have always been entirely free from desires of the flesh, but I would be lying if I did". While it is possible she was an idealized or pseudonymous character — particularly since the name "Laura" has a linguistic connection to the poetic "laurels" Petrarch coveted — Petrarch himself always denied it.
His frequent use of l'aura is also remarkable: There is psychological realism in the description of Laura, although Petrarch draws heavily on conventionalised descriptions of love and lovers from troubadour songs and other literature of courtly love. Her presence causes him unspeakable joy, but his unrequited love creates unendurable desires, inner conflicts between the ardent lover and the mystic Christian , making it impossible to reconcile the two.
Laura is unreachable — the few physical descriptions of her are vague, almost impalpable as the love he pines for, and such is perhaps the power of his verse, which lives off the melodies it evokes against the fading, diaphanous image that is no more consistent than a ghost. Francesco De Sanctis remarks much the same thing in his Storia della letteratura italiana , and contemporary critics agree on the powerful music of his verse.
Perhaps the poet was inspired by a famous singer he met in Veneto around the s. Laura is too holy to be painted; she is an awe-inspiring goddess. Sensuality and passion are suggested rather by the rhythm and music that shape the vague contours of the lady. In addition, some today consider Laura to be a representation of an "ideal Renaissance woman", based on her nature and definitive characteristics.http://bpppbanyuwangi.com/cache/arrests/zyju-detecter-logiciel-espion.php
Breeze, blowing that blonde curling hair, stirring it, and being softly stirred in turn, scattering that sweet gold about, then gathering it, in a lovely knot of curls again, you linger around bright eyes whose loving sting pierces me so, till I feel it and weep, and I wander searching for my treasure, like a creature that often shies and kicks: Happy air, remain here with your living rays: Petrarch is a world apart from Dante and his Divina Commedia.
In spite of the metaphysical subject, the Commedia is deeply rooted in the cultural and social milieu of turn-of-the-century Florence: Dante's rise to power and exile , his political passions call for a "violent" use of language, where he uses all the registers, from low and trivial to sublime and philosophical. Petrarch confessed to Boccaccio that he had never read the Commedia , remarks Contini, wondering whether this was true or Petrarch wanted to distance himself from Dante. Some other themes are desire, isolation, unrequited love, and vanity of youth. The central theme in the Canzoniere is the love for Laura, with whom Petrarch fell in love at first sight.
Laura was already married and turned down all of Petrarch's advances. It is unknown if the two ever spoke. In any case, it would be improper to see Canzoniere as uniquely inspired by love for Laura. Other themes are important: The love theme itself should be considered as the nucleus around which Petrarca develops his deep psychological analysis: Even glory, however, cannot guarantee real eternity, because in Christianity, only faith in Jesus Christ can guarantee it.
Petrarch uses Ovid 's Metamorphoses to convey themes of instability, and also sources Virgil 's Aeneid. Petrarch inherited aspects of artifice and rhetorical skill from Sicilian courtly poetry , including that of the inventor of the sonnet form, Giacomo da Lentini.
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Dante , and the school of the dolce stil nuovo , or sweet new style, developed this placement of the female and proposed that the pursuit of love was a noble virtue. In , Chaucer adopted part of the Canzoniere to form three stanzas of rhyme royal in Troilus and Criseyde , Book I. As novices newly crept out of the schooles of Dante, Arioste and Petrarch, they greatly polished our rude and homely manner of vulgar poesie, from that it had bene before, and for that cause may justly be sayd the first reformers of our English meetre and stile.
Thus, their translations of Rimes from the Canzoniere paved the way for the sonnet sequences of Sidney and Shakespeare.
The latter spent nine years in Italy before returning to France to spread knowledge of Petrarch and Serafino. The first sonnet sequence to be published in France came in in the form of Joachim du Bellay 's L'Olive. When first published it contained 50 sonnets but the next year Bellay added more poems and raised the total number to - references to Petrarch are made in fourteen of these sonnets. Get Canzoniere essential facts below. View Videos or join the Canzoniere discussion. Add Canzoniere to your PopFlock.
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