Senior Power or Senior Peril: Aged Communities and American. Because the child Boomer new release a long time, the variety of senior voters as a share of the final voters will achieve list numbers. Additional resources for Old Age: Old age as a philosophical topos in antiquity had a long, if undistinguished, history, and was related both to the observed condition of the elderly of the time and to the stereotypical images derived from popular literature. Philosophical works specifically on old age were written by some; we hear of such tracts by several peripatetic philosophers.
Whatever scattered expressions of reverence for old age might suggest, there is nothing to indicate any significantly positive role for the elderly in ancient society, whether as decision-makers or as advisers. Privileges granted to old age generally took the form of exemptions from duties not always freely given at that , rather than positive benefits. Ita enim senectus honesta est, si se ipsa defendit, si ius suum retinet, si nemini emancipata est, si usque ad ultimum spiritum dominatur in suos.
A Philosophy of Nature. The Star Trek Book: Strange New Worlds Boldly Explained. See all free Kindle reading apps. Don't have a Kindle? Routledge; 1 edition 1 Oct. Be the first to review this item Amazon Bestsellers Rank: Review "What these essays reveal, then, is the need to take the next step in aging history: Customer reviews There are no customer reviews yet.
Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art. Some critics question calling Duchamp—whose obsession with paradox is well known—postmodernist on the grounds he eschews any specific medium, since paradox is not medium-specific, although it arose first in Manet's paintings.
Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established styles and forms, along with Surrealism , Futurism and Abstract Expressionism. In general, Pop Art and Minimalism began as modernist movements: Other modern movements cited as influential to postmodern art are conceptual art and the use of techniques such as assemblage , montage , bricolage , and appropriation.
During the late s and early s, Pollock 's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art following him. Pollock realized the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso 's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined artmaking during the mid-century. Pollock's move from easel painting and conventionality liberated his contemporaneous artists and following artists.
Abstract expressionism expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities artists had available for the creation of new works of art. In abstract painting during the s and s several new directions like Hard-edge painting and other forms of Geometric abstraction like the work of Frank Stella popped up, as a reaction against the subjectivism of Abstract expressionism began to appear in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles.
Clement Greenberg became the voice of Post-painterly abstraction; by curating an influential exhibition of new painting touring important art museums throughout the United States in Color field painting , Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction  emerged as radical new directions.
By the late s, Postminimalism , Process Art and Arte Povera  also emerged as revolutionary concepts and movements encompassing painting and sculpture, via Lyrical Abstraction and the Postminimalist movement, and in early Conceptual Art. During the late s and s, artists with a wide range of interests began pushing the boundaries of Contemporary art. Groups like The Living Theater with Julian Beck and Judith Malina collaborated with sculptors and painters creating environments; radically changing the relationship between audience and performer especially in their piece Paradise Now.
These performances were often designed to be the creation of a new art form, combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation.
Postmodern art - Wikipedia
The reductive philosophies of minimalism , spontaneous improvisation, and expressivity of Abstract expressionism characterized the works. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in varied specified locations. Often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physical exercise, costumes, spontaneous nudity , and various random and seemingly disconnected acts.
The work of Robert Rauschenberg , whose "combines" in the s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art , and made use of the assemblage of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography , exemplified this art trend. Leo Steinberg uses the term postmodernism in to describe Rauschenberg's "flatbed" picture plane, containing a range of cultural images and artifacts that had not been compatible with the pictorial field of premodernist and modernist painting.
Steven Best and Douglas Kellner identify Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns as part of the transitional phase, influenced by Marcel Duchamp , between modernism and postmodernism. These artists used images of ordinary objects, or the objects themselves, in their work, while retaining the abstraction and painterly gestures of high modernism.
Anselm Kiefer also uses elements of assemblage in his works, and on one occasion, featured the bow of a fishing boat in a painting. This movement rejected Abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted, and often celebrated, material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age. While later American examples include the bulk of the careers of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein and his use of Benday dots , a technique used in commercial reproduction.
S postmodernism in the visual arts began with the first exhibitions of Pop art in , "though it took about twenty years before postmodernism became a dominant attitude in the visual arts.
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One way Pop art is postmodern is it breaks down what Andreas Huyssen calls the "Great Divide" between high art and popular culture. Fluxus was named and loosely organized in by George Maciunas —78 , a Lithuanian-born American artist. Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in music.
In in Germany Fluxus started with the: And in with the: Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues.
Fluxus can be viewed as part of the first phase of postmodernism, along with Rauschenberg, Johns, Warhol and the Situationist International. It did not represent a major advance in the development of artistic strategies, though it did express a rebellion against, "the administered culture of the s, in which a moderate, domesticated modernism served as ideological prop to the Cold War.
By the early s Minimalism emerged as an abstract movement in art with roots in geometric abstraction via Malevich , the Bauhaus and Mondrian which rejected the idea of relational, and subjective painting, the complexity of Abstract expressionist surfaces, and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of Action painting.
Minimalism argued extreme simplicity could capture the sublime representation art requires. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella , minimalism in painting, as opposed to other areas, is a modernist movement and depending on the context can be construed as a precursor to the postmodern movement. Hal Foster , in his essay The Crux of Minimalism , examines the extent to which Donald Judd and Robert Morris both acknowledge and exceed Greenbergian modernism in their published definitions of minimalism.
Robert Pincus-Witten coined the term Post-minimalism in to describe minimalist derived art which had content and contextual overtones minimalism rejected. Rosalind Krauss argues by artists such as Morris, LeWitt, Smithson and Serra had "entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist.
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Conceptual art is sometimes labelled as postmodern because it is expressly involved in deconstruction of what makes a work of art, "art". Conceptual art, because it is often designed to confront, offend or attack notions held by many of the people who view it, is regarded with particular controversy. Precursors to conceptual art include the work of Duchamp, John Cage 's 4' 33" , in which the music is said to be "the sounds of the environment that the listeners' hear while it is performed," and Rauschenberg's Erased De Kooning Drawing. Many conceptual works take the position that art is created by the viewer viewing an object or act as art, not from the intrinsic qualities of the work itself.
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