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Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. It was unknown that everyday teaching and learning in which individuals had to think about individual differences, assessment, development, the nature of a subject being taught, problem solving, and transfer of learning was the beginning to the field of educational psychology. These topics are important to education and as a result it is important to understanding human cognition, learning, and social perception. Educational psychology dates back to the time of Aristotle and Plato.
Plato and Aristotle researched individual differences in the field of education , training of the body and the cultivation of psycho-motor skills, the formation of good character, the possibilities and limits of moral education. Some other educational topics they spoke about were the effects of music, poetry, and the other arts on the development of individual, role of teacher, and the relations between teacher and student.
Such a statement has evolved into a continuing argument of nature vs. Aristotle observed the phenomenon of "association. His studies examined recall and facilitated learning processes. John Locke was considered one of the most influential philosophers in post-renaissance Europe in about mid s. Locke was called "Father of English Psychology". In this essay, he introduced the term "tabula rasa" meaning "blank slate. He followed by contrasting Plato's theory of innate learning processes.www.newyorkethnicfood.com/wp-content/quests/silenced-2-the-overtaking-silenced-series.php
Psychology for language learning: Spare a thought for the teacher
Locke believed the mind was formed by experiences, not innate ideas. Locke introduced this idea as "empiricism," or the understanding that knowledge is only built on knowledge and experience. In the late s, John Locke advanced the hypothesis that people learn primarily from external forces. He believed that the mind was like a blank tablet tabula rasa , and that successions of simple impressions give rise to complex ideas through association and reflection.
Locke is credited with establishing " empiricism " as a criterion for testing the validity of knowledge, thus providing a conceptual framework for later development of experimental methodology in the natural and social sciences. Juan Vives — proposed induction as the method of study and believed in the direct observation and investigation of the study of nature. His studies focus of humanistic learning , which opposed scholasticism and was influenced by a variety of sources including philosophy , psychology , politics , religion , and history.
The Social Psychology of the Classroom
Vives introduced his educational ideas in his writing, "De anima et vita" in In this publication, Vives explores moral philosophy as a setting for his educational ideals; with this, he explains that the different parts of the soul similar to that of Aristotle's ideas are each responsible for different operations, which function distinctively. The first book covers the different "souls": The second book involves functions of the rational soul: Lastly, the third book explains the analysis of emotions.
Johann Pestalozzi — , a Swiss educational reformer, emphasized the child rather than the content of the school. Eventually, this experience with early education would lead to a "wholesome person characterized by morality. In his later years, he published teaching manuals and methods of teaching.
During the time of The Enlightenment , Pestalozzi's ideals introduced "educationalisation. Horlacher describes the most prominent example of this during The Enlightenment to be "improving agricultural production methods. Johann Herbart — is considered the father of educational psychology. The 5 steps that teachers should use are:. There were three major figures in educational psychology in this period: Stanley Hall, and John Dewey. These three men distinguished themselves in general psychology and educational psychology, which overlapped significantly at the end of the 19th century.
The period of — is considered the golden era of educational psychology where aspirations of the new discipline rested on the application of the scientific methods of observation and experimentation to educational problems. From to 37 million people immigrated to the United States. The increase in immigration also provided educational psychologists the opportunity to use intelligence testing to screen immigrants at Ellis Island.
The pioneering American psychologist William James commented that:. Psychology is a science, and teaching is an art; and sciences never generate arts directly out of themselves. An intermediate inventive mind must make that application, by using its originality". James is the father of psychology in America but he also made contributions to educational psychology.
The social psychology of the classroom in SearchWorks catalog
In his famous series of lectures Talks to Teachers on Psychology , published in , James defines education as "the organization of acquired habits of conduct and tendencies to behavior". Teachers should also realize the importance of habit and instinct. They should present information that is clear and interesting and relate this new information and material to things the student already knows about.
Alfred Binet published Mental Fatigue in , in which he attempted to apply the experimental method to educational psychology. In he was appointed the Minister of Public Education. In Lewis Terman revised the Binet-Simon so that the average score was always Terman, unlike Binet, was interested in using intelligence test to identify gifted children who had high intelligence.
Edward Thorndike — supported the scientific movement in education. He based teaching practices on empirical evidence and measurement. The law of effect states that associations are strengthened when it is followed by something pleasing and associations are weakened when followed by something not pleasing. He also found that learning is done a little at a time or in increments, learning is an automatic process and all the principles of learning apply to all mammals. Thorndike's research with Robert Woodworth on the theory of transfer found that learning one subject will only influence your ability to learn another subject if the subjects are similar.
He made all the problems more realistic and relevant to what was being studied, not just to improve the general intelligence. If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print. John Dewey — had a major influence on the development of progressive education in the United States. He believed that the classroom should prepare children to be good citizens and facilitate creative intelligence.
For Dewey, education was a social experience that helped bring together generations of people. He stated that students learn by doing. He believed in an active mind that was able to be educated through observation, problem solving and enquiry. In his book How We Think , he emphasizes that material should be provided in a way that is stimulating and interesting to the student since it encourages original thought and problem solving. Jean Piaget — was one of the most powerful researchers in the area of developmental psychology during the 20th century.
He developed the theory of cognitive development. The stages are the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years old, the preoperational state from 2 years old to 7 years old, the concrete operational stage from 7 years old to 10 years old, and formal operational stage from 11 years old and up. Piaget influenced educational psychology because he was the first to believe that cognitive development was important and something that should be paid attention to in education. The number of people receiving a high school and college education increased dramatically from to John Flanagan, an educational psychologist, developed tests for combat trainees and instructions in combat training.
Jerome Bruner is notable for integrating Piaget 's cognitive approaches into educational psychology. He also believed that how the subject was structured was important for the student's understanding of the subject and it is the goal of the teacher to structure the subject in a way that was easy for the student to understand. Bruner was also influential in the development of MACOS, Man a Course of Study, which was an educational program that combined anthropology and science.
He also helped with the development of the head start program. He was interested in the influence of culture on education and looked at the impact of poverty on educational development. Benjamin Bloom — spent over 50 years at the University of Chicago , where he worked in the department of education. He developed taxonomy of educational objectives. The cognitive domain deals with how we think.
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Internationally, the taxonomy is used in every aspect of education from training of the teachers to the development of testing material. He thought that teachers should provide feedback to the students on their strengths and weaknesses. He found that they differ in understanding the basis of the problem and the ideas in the problem.
He also found that students differ in process of problem solving in their approach and attitude toward the problem. Nathaniel Gage is an important figure in educational psychology as his research focused on improving teaching and understanding the processes involved in teaching. Applied behavior analysis , a research-based science utilizing behavioral principles of operant conditioning , is effective in a range of educational settings.
There is evidence that tangible rewards decrease intrinsic motivation in specific situations, such as when the student already has a high level of intrinsic motivation to perform the goal behavior. Among current educational psychologists, the cognitive perspective is more widely held than the behavioral perspective, perhaps because it admits causally related mental constructs such as traits , beliefs , memories , motivations and emotions. Among the memory structures theorized by cognitive psychologists are separate but linked visual and verbal systems described by Allan Paivio 's dual coding theory.
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Educational psychologists have used dual coding theory and cognitive load theory to explain how people learn from multimedia presentations. The spaced learning effect, a cognitive phenomenon strongly supported by psychological research, has broad applicability within education. Problem solving , according to prominent cognitive psychologists, is fundamental to learning. It resides as an important research topic in educational psychology.
A student is thought to interpret a problem by assigning it to a schema retrieved from long-term memory. A problem students run into while reading is called "activation. This causes the student to read through the material without absorbing the information and being able to retain it.
When working memory is absent from the reader's representations of the working memory they experience something called "deactivation. If deactivation occurs during the first reading, the reader does not need to undergo deactivation in the second reading. The reader will only need to reread to get a "gist" of the text to spark their memory.
When the problem is assigned to the wrong schema, the student's attention is subsequently directed away from features of the problem that are inconsistent with the assigned schema. Each person has an individual profile of characteristics, abilities and challenges that result from predisposition, learning and development. These manifest as individual differences in intelligence , creativity , cognitive style , motivation and the capacity to process information, communicate, and relate to others.
The most prevalent disabilities found among school age children are attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , learning disability , dyslexia , and speech disorder. Less common disabilities include intellectual disability , hearing impairment , cerebral palsy , epilepsy , and blindness. Although theories of intelligence have been discussed by philosophers since Plato , intelligence testing is an invention of educational psychology, and is coincident with the development of that discipline. Continuing debates about the nature of intelligence revolve on whether intelligence can be characterized by a single factor known as general intelligence ,  multiple factors e.
In practice, standardized instruments such as the Stanford-Binet IQ test and the WISC  are widely used in economically developed countries to identify children in need of individualized educational treatment. Children classified as gifted are often provided with accelerated or enriched programs. It is also an invaluable resource for teachers and teacher education students who want to understand why they are effective instructors and yet still encounter students in their classes who are not responding as expected.
Rubie-Davies , Jason M. Many of these topics have been studied independently; for example, motivation, self-concept, Stephens , Penelope Watson.
Related The Social Psychology of the Classroom (Routledge Research in Education)
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