Order online at springer. All prices exclusive of carriage charges. Prices and other details are subject to change without notice. All errors and omissions excepted. The New Realities 1 Archaeologists at the Table: From Community to Global Jameson 2 Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe A Survey of Working Archaeologists Cooper 7 Confirming Relevance: Training and Professional Development in the UK Some Problems and Possible Solutions Remember me on this computer.
Ultimately, archaeology becomes a tool for civic engagement, activism, and social justice as well as a powerful source of information about the history of the human race and the world it inhabits. We invite proposals that elucidate archaeological approaches to engagement with communities of all kinds as well as sessions that explore: Sessions within this theme explore these various problems in engaged practice and show how archaeologists are implementing new programs that serve and empower communities through heritage.
WAC is increasingly asked to provide expert guidance on a wide range of ethical dilemmas that arise in local and global archaeological interactions. WAC needs a framework based on its own core values—one that incorporates intercultural dialogue, social justice, and accountability to people and to the past—to inform the process of responding to particular situations. With this in mind, the WAC Committee on Ethics has begun exploring various frameworks and guidelines for ethical decision-making that highlight approaches archaeologists and others might use to think through what are often complex issues in ways that would ensure better informed and more equitable decision-making and research relationships.
We invite people from diverse parts of the world to share ethical contradictions and quandaries they face in relation to archaeology or heritage practice.
Year 1 — Department of Archaeology
We are especially interested in learning from situations where equitable and thoughtful resolutions have occurred and in gathering positive and negative examples of how ethical dilemmas have been or should have been handled in practice, and in some cases resolved. We welcome contributions to this theme in diverse and interactive formats. These could be in the form of: Marcia de Almeida Sociedade de Arqueologia Brasileira. Anne Pyburn Indiana University.
Archaeology links the past with the present, but it also links people with common heritage across borders, and colonized peoples around the world. Archaeology links the academy to the public and the economy to the polity. Furthermore, archaeology links science to humanism at the most fundamental level. All of these links are avenues of communication and all of them offer opportunities for archaeologists and heritage workers to learn from the past, to teach about diversity, to work for social justice, to create economic opportunity, to encourage preservation, and to be politically active.
The key issue is always "the message": How can they get access to the information they need to make informed decisions about ethical engagement? The topic of this theme is "getting the message across" in reference to all of these types of messages. Communication requires an exchange of ideas and cannot rest on the dissemination of academic wisdom: Teaching is not something that one person or one group does to, or for, another group; it must be conducted on a collaborative basis.
Teaching is a form of communication; it is a dialogical process. Above all, teaching is something that people must do together. Sessions in this theme will discuss the messages of mass media, the classroom, community based research, and public displays and events. The idea of messages and the communication of ideas cuts across many of the other themes of this Congress, and we hope this theme will provide an integrative forum for the many voices and perspectives of archaeology. This theme will examine ways in which the principles of culturally sustainable tourism can intersect with those of heritage management and interpretation.
Heritage is assumed to include intangible as well as tangible values. We encourage contributors to take a broad view of cultural heritage and to consider it in relation to the natural environments in which it has evolved. Cultural landscapes, sense of place and spirit of place will be discussed, as well as specific sites, collections, cultural practice and performance.
A strong body of international charters and guidelines now sets frameworks for ethical cultural and heritage tourism, such as those for sustainable tourism, cultural tourism, Indigenous tourism and ecotourism. There are also guidelines for cultural and natural heritage identification, management, presentation and interpretation. We seek critical reflection on these guidelines, and examples of ways in which they are being applied in different communities and different cultural contexts.
At the same time, archaeologists and others have been investigating the history of entertainment, emphasising the social importance of leisure pursuits over time, as well as the politics and ethics of entertainment in the past and in the present to underscore the ways in which entertainment has often been exclusive and enjoyable to some people at the expense of others. Democratising decision making in heritage tourism projects is a major issue in many countries, especially where there are power imbalances between the tourism industry and host communities.
We seek examples of projects in which processes are being negotiated and developed to achieve results that benefit communities as well as commercial stakeholders. We also seek projects that encourage interdisciplinary examinations of the worldwide fusion of entertainment and archaeology and that explore the antiquity of the concept of cultural tourism within a global context.
This theme will cover issues of: Ownership, authenticity, and collaborative partnerships. The need to match audiences markets with heritage tourism product and processes. Archaeology, ethical and engaging interpretation, visitor experiences. Ownership and democratisation of the processes of heritage tourism product development, marketing and distribution. International principles and protocols, charters and declarations: Sustainable tourism — integrating cultural and social factors. Archaeology, Entertainment, and Heritage Tourism. Rasmi Shoocongdej Silpakorn University.
Dawn Casey Western Australian Museum. Indigenous Archaeology has become a signature of WAC. Through the active promotion of indigenous issues in archaeology, WAC has contributed greatly to the vital discussion of the social values and contemporary consequences of archaeological practice. This theme seeks to build on this tradition of articulating critique against socially irresponsible archaeology and heritage management, and to focus on the numerous issues that are relevant for Indigenous archaeology in Indigenous archaeology, with its strong emphasis on the social dimensions of archaeology, has been fundamental in establishing dialogue about ethics and global perspectives on heritage management.
Recent discussions about repatriation, the ownership of heritage, and cultural and natural resource management, bring these categories of allegedly good and bad archaeologies out for scrutiny, indicating the benefits of going beyond these stable valorized categories in the discussions of Indigenous archaeologies.
This theme welcomes proposals for sessions and papers addressing issues that are in all possible ways related to Indigenous archaeology, and in particular, those that offer critical reflection on recent directions in research and heritage management.
- Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists;
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The aim is to generate involved, passionate and controversial discussions that stimulate new creative thinking in global and local archaeologies. The goal of this project is to stimulate research and discussion on issues of sexuality in the archaeology of colonialism. Archaeology has tended to minimize sexuality in its studies of colonization and of colonial, colonized, and post-colonial societies, although our colleagues in other disciplines have long understood that sexual politics and sexual encounters were central to projects of empire and in local responses to those projects.
Participants are invited to re examine and re imagine archaeological research in ways that confront sexual silences in the archaeology of the colonial past and present. What can archaeologys methodological emphases on place, material culture, and representation bring to studies of sexuality and colonialism?
How do theories of materiality, landscape, and representation contribute new perspectives to queer theory and postcolonial theory? James Delle Kutztown University. Pedro Funari Campinas University, Brazil. After decades of relative neglect, the archaeological study of the past five centuries is firmly established as one of the most vibrant and challenging pursuits in World Archaeology.
No branch of the discipline has a richer data-base than Historical Archaeology, and no branch is, we suggest, so overly political or engages so overtly with the world of politics. WAC6 in Dublin offers us a perfect opportunity, in an appropriately resonant location, to review its progress and to debate its core concerns and methods. We invite colleagues to organise and contribute to a series of sessions which explore those issues which most Historical Archaeologists regard as central to the field.
Archaeology is heavily dependent on land-related concepts. Almost every archaeological argument and publication implies relationships to land, and makes assumptions and applies concepts about land. Without those usually implicit and often hidden assumptions one could not talk about archaeological sites, archaeological surveys, or archaeological landscapes, nor settlement patterns, or archaeological cultures.
Relationships to land are more or less overtly implied in many archaeological theories and theoretical models, and archaeology is practiced on land, surveying, excavating, measuring and removing data on land. Relationships to land are conceptualized very differently by colonizers and colonized, before and after colonization, by urban and rural people, by lords and peasants, and by the same people in different phases of their history. Many of these relationships differ significantly from those implied by archaeological theories and practices. To some peoples land is a powerful and loving being, with important implications for their relationships to that land.
This symposium will help expose and critically scrutinize the different discourses on the relationships to land in archaeology, the diversity and richness of relationships to land, and the ways in which archaeology has reinforced or disempowered particular kinds of relationships to land and discourses about land. Under this theme, participants are encouraged to create symposia, strategy sessions toward future interactions, round tables, work-shops, counter-posed position papers, or critical analyses of recent practice.
Initial planning anticipates the following topics: Cultural concepts about land and their material markers. Archaeological theory and method on Land and their effect on the land of descendant populations. Archaeological practices on land. Archaeological metaphors about land.
Past land uses as resources for the present. Archaeology as the hand-maiden of settler societies. Archaeological research to fight colonization, internal colonization, and re-colonization in the age of post-colonial theory? Why has landscape become the buzz-word of this decade? Toward variation, change and diversity in land studies. The archaeology of low intensity uses of the land. Islands have long been fascinating places for poets, artists and writers, providing usefully blank sheets to imagine utopian societies or to re-imagine existing nations — as in colonial encounters between empires and discovered islands.
Islands are also of interest to scientists who explore the distinctive qualities of island fauna and flora. It is unsurprising then that island archaeology has rapidly emerged as an exciting and innovative sub-discipline in archaeology. With a long history of providing evidence of Darwinian evolution and biogeographical models it is not surprising that an emerging scientific archaeology was attracted to island studies.
But islands have also been the subject of anthropological fascination dating from the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century expeditions to the Torres Strait and Trobriands amongst other locations. Anthropological and other social methods have also then attracted archaeologists to islands. Island archaeologies explore such issues as the perceptions and uses of islands, landscapes and surrounding waters; the role of islands as bounded places in the construction of distinctive social identities and the connections that people have established within - and between - islands and outside worlds.
There are several geographical areas of island interest in archaeology, with the Pacific and Mediterranean perhaps being best known in past research and publications on archaeological approaches to islands. The Caribbean, north Atlantic Islands including Britain and Ireland , the islands of South East Asia, the Indian Ocean and those of the Americas, particularly the west and northwest coast of North America, as well as many other islands outside these regions, are also witnessing thriving research at the moment.
Emerging archaeological research in islands all around the world will therefore be drawn together in this theme. In this Theme we invite sessions that address such questions, we also wish to encourage themes that are regional, but would also welcome proposals that offer a comparative perspective to the issue of living in island worlds.
We also recognise that sessions and papers need not deal solely with the past, for example, what are the threats and opportunities to small island nations in relation to heritage management, and particularly concerns related to climate and other environmental change. Maritime archaeology encompasses a diverse range of interests. These include human habitation on now submerged coastal landscapes to the use of the sea and inland waterways, with this often being the impetus that encouraged the establishment and expansion of settlements.
The development of waterborne transport and their components also enabled the essential industries of fishing, transport, and trade to thrive and, equally, this expansion in waterborne power led, in many cases, to conflict and controversy for many nations. With growing international support for the spirit of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, it is also important that the world's underwater and maritime archaeology community can come together to discuss and exemplify, through a broad scope of papers, the challenges that the discipline will face over the next decades.
The Theme will include a wide range of sessions including, projects that fall within the terms, maritime, nautical, marine, coastal and underwater archaeology and issues relating to methodology, legislation, resource management and public archaeology.
Chris Fowler Newcastle University. This theme aims to address how people in different cultural contexts employ the material world to construct, challenge and transform social identities. The objects we use and the ways we use them define us and our place in the world. In addition, the properties of material things are often drawn on to describe features of people and communities in metaphorical terms. Material culture is therefore integral to the construction of the self and the creation of social relationships; as such, it facilitates both practical and social engagement with the world around us.
However, this process has significant political ramifications. Identity is, however, also fluid, transient and susceptible to contestation, so that the meanings ascribed to things may become the focus of intense debate. From bodily ornament and modification to the stories woven around heirlooms, from religious architecture to the use of archaeological icons such the Tara brooch to construct nationalist ideologies, there are myriad ways in which the material world is employed to create identity.
Indeed, the various ways in which social and cultural identity are embedded in and expressed through the material world have long been a focus of archaeological inquiry. Since the culture-historical approaches of the early twentieth century through to ongoing debates regarding rights over cultural property, research on how people draw the material world into discourses on identity continues to be one of the key contributions of our discipline to the humanities and social sciences.
Sessions are invited to examine the relationship between identities and material things - including bodies, landscapes, architecture, objects and natural substances. Sessions may focus on the role of material things in the production of, for example: Sexed and gendered identities.
Age groups and generational identities. Kin groups and family identities. Ethnic and cultural identities. Political groups and identities. Religious and spiritual identities. Contributions within this theme may examine how identities come to be materialised through specific practices and events, and the role played by material culture in the maintenance and transformation of identities over time.
Sessions may include studies covering any period of the past up to the present day and any part of the world and should present these in a comparative thematic context. Lynette Russell Monash University. Once the refuge of the individual, there is now much talk of collective or social memory, which is thought to play a key role in the production of historical consciousness and group identities. The emphasis on active selection and construction of memory in the present has particular appeal for those disillusioned with the idea of an objective, distanced historical enquiry.
In archaeology these developments have been prominent in post- colonial contexts and indigenous archaeology. Yet there are also parallel trends in Europe, where oral history and social memory are seen as a means to access vernacular culture and subaltern understandings of the past. This theme will explore the relationship between memory, oral tradition and archaeology. It interrogates the concepts of memory and oral history, and explores their relationship to written sources and grand historical narratives. Sessions explore a range of issues: How should we conceive of oral tradition and social memory?
And in recognizing their significance, how do we avoid objectifying and romanticizing them? How do we deal with the intersection of written history and oral memory? To what extent is social memory disparate, located and fragmented and how do authoritative narratives emerge and persist? Can the study of memory and oral traditions contribute to multivocality and how might it challenge hegemonic colonial and indeed post-colonial discourses?
What role do archaeological remains play in the production of oral history and social memory? How are oral traditions and social memory involved in the production of a sense of place? What are the processes involved in the materialization of memory? To what extent has a concern with oral tradition impacted on archaeological enquiry and what role does memory play in the discipline and in the making of disciplinary histories?
Finally, what are the implications in terms of how we practice archaeology, represent the past, and conserve and manage heritage places? The scope of the theme is worldwide. We welcome contributions on diverse topics, including: Luiz Oosterbeek Instituto Politecnico de Tomar. Movement is central to human existence and is consequently very much part of our everyday lives.
Without movement our lives would be unimaginable, in fact we would cease to exist. However, movement comes in countless different scales both temporary and spatial; from the daily commute to a long distance journey and from a solitary stroll to mass migrations. While migration narratives have long been at the heart of explanations for social change in many archaeological traditions around the globe and have often been cause for heated debate, movement itself appears to have been received far less explicit archaeological attention.
This is despite the fact that clearly migration cannot occur without significant amount of human movement. The study of mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomes for example has helped the production of extremely popular large scale migration narratives, especially as these datasets directly relate to modern populations.
Skeletal stable isotope analysis on the other hand — in particular of strontium and lead — has allowed a focus on the journeys undertaken by particular individuals during their lifetime but have also been used to infer potential marriage and migration patterns. Approaches such as these have thus provided new impetus for re-examining the evidence for past movement and migration on all levels and scales.
This theme will bring together sessions concentrating on the various dimensions of movement from the small scale perspectives of individual journeys to seasonal movement cycles and migrations with a broad geographical focus. The sessions will also highlight the chronological depth of movement and migration studies in modern archaeology and anthropology, considering migrations of the earliest hominids across Africa and into Eurasia as well as historical and contemporary perspectives of both small scale movements and migrations. By uniting this myriad of topics and approaches under the one theme we draw attention to the close relation between the various aspects and scales of movement and migration which has to date not been fully explored.
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Communal foraging spans the world and much of human history. Although the immediate tangible outcome of communal foraging events may appear to be subsistence oriented, participation carries significant social, political, economic and personal costs and benefits. Communal foraging events also play important roles in the formation, maintenance, and negotiation of social and personal identities. Social rules for divisions of labor by sex, gender, and age are challenged and redefined in the context of communal foraging events.
This theme brings a global archaeological perspective to the problems raised by communal foraging. Our aim is to structure the theme so that each session successively builds up a framework for understanding the phenomena of communal foraging. Proposed sessions may include the following: The implications of definitions and recognizing the difference in the archaeological record, 2 Variations in Communal Foraging, 3 The Role of Facilities and Technologies, 4 Motivations for and Consequences of Participation, and 5 Indigenous Perspectives on Archaeological Inference.
Depending on the interests and abilities of the participants sessions will include traditional presentations, posters, panel discussions, group discussions based on electronic presentation of papers, or a hybrid of these formats.
Purity Kiura National Museums of Kenya. Freda Nkirote National Museums of Kenya. It aims to explore how people in the past engaged with and actively shaped these environments and, following this, how the archaeological study of past human environments can contribute to our understanding of modern land-use and environmental management. In particular, it aims to address the potential role of archaeology to understanding contemporary issues of environmental degradation, conflict over land and resources, and effective land management schemes.
It also aims to encourage the discussion of key themes such as environmental 'conservation' and 'sustainability' and stimulate engagement with issues of climate change and global warming. A range of both theoretical and research based papers are encouraged. In particular, papers which focus on defining the role of archaeology in understanding human-environment interactions and the theoretical and practical integration of diverse data sources will be viewed favourably.
Papers which address issues of the moral and social responsibility of archaeologists, for example in substantiating or refuting land-claims, or assessing anthropogenic land-degradation, are also desired. In addition, we encourage archaeological case-studies and original pieces of research that aim to reconstruct past human-environment interactions and then relate these data to modern environmental concerns. This theme also recognises that, while disciplines such as cultural ecology and evolutionary ecology often view human-environment interactions in functionalist and adaptionist terms, there is a real need to introduce a more humanistic perspective to such studies.
The human skeleton is affected by the life experience of the individual in terms of growth and development, nutrition, activity patterns, disease history and health stress, offset against the effects of familial inheritance and ancestry. From a bioarchaeological perspective each individual is unique, but data for groups of individuals can provide a wealth of information about whole populations in the past, as well as providing a framework for the study of individuals and groups in the present.
Critical reflection reminds us that historically the study of human remains has overtly or unconsciously evinced racist, ethnocentric, and sexist ideas. Analyses of human remains, nonetheless, remain a controversial issue, perhaps because the dialogue is often perceived as only being dichotomous and conflicting. The study of human remains can open the door to important aspects of individual and populational life history, which cannot be recovered from other sources.
But, how is the knowledge that bioarchaeologists produce important beyond our academic environs? Does this information have direct relevance or utility in the present day? In what way is the information obtained from analyses of human remains of value not just to scientists but descendant communities? Why do we do what we do and for whom? From this basis, we challenge contributors to think reflexively about their bioarchaeological work with regard to its sociopolitical relevance in the present. Contributors may wrestle with these queries in several ways.
They can consider how their populational research concerned with growth and development, nutrition, activity patterns, disease, and health impact medical diagnosis or treatment of present day peoples. They may consider how studies of past populations impinge on the identification of individuals in current forensic or mass-disaster contexts. They may explore how knowledge is communicated to the wider public.
Or, participants may elaborate upon collaborations between researchers and descendant communities. And recognizing that descendant communities have diverse histories and experiences that contour their perspectives and wishes how might future collaborations proceed? WAC6 provides an especially unique opportunity for scholars from six continents to collaborate on issues of global significance. The ultimate aim of the theme is to trigger debate on the study of human remains but also unashamedly to show the value of thosestudies.
So as to broaden debate about and understanding of bioarchaeological studies, we encourage considerations from regions—Africa, East Asia, Australasia—and groups historically marginalized or under-represented in previous discussions. In doing so, we anticipate effecting productive and congenial discussion about this highly sensitive issue. Huw Barton University of Leicester. Victor Paz University of the Philippines.
Tim Denham Monash University.
Implementing Community Service Learning through Archaeological Practice
Jean Kennedy Australian National University. Robin Torrence Australian Museum. The purpose of this theme is to reset the agenda concerning research on the long-term history of human-rainforest interactions, with a primary focus on subsistence. The major outcome of this discussion will be to 1 form a clearer picture of the current critical issues in understanding human-rainforest interactions; 2 what it is we need to know in order to move forward; and 3 what research strategies and methodologies are likely to address the identified questions and to produce the most significant results in the future.
For many years researchers have been trying to identify the signature of human behaviour in tropical landscapes, untangle the interactions between human versus natural process, and determine the antiquity of occupation and various management and agricultural practices. In various contexts archaeologists and anthropologists recognize a range of human initiatives and responses to the problems of daily subsistence posed by tropical rainforest.
Finding solutions to these problems is proving both complex and demanding because it requires the cross fertilization of ideas and methodology from a wide range of disciplines including archaeology, anthropology, botany, ethnobotany, palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, and genetics. It is hoped that by bringing together a wide range of scholars from across the globe, and from a wide variety of disciplines, the sessions will lead to new collaborative research projects and be a source for new ideas. We invite new Session proposals within this Theme. This list is not exclusive and we will explore new territory depending on interest.
In these particular sessions we would like to try a different approach to presentation where authors will be encouraged to pre-circulate their written contributions 2- 5, words. Authors will also be asked to discuss what they perceive to be the major issues in their particular research areas, and address what they feel is needed to solve some of their more pressing research objectives. Following the presentations, the group will workshop the major issues raised.
The aim will be to make concrete proposals regarding new definitions and concepts and identify the types of research that need to be undertaken to solve the questions raised in the papers. The days of neutral, value-free science have long gone. However, when various stakeholders claim to have different mappings of the past, few of them tend to go beyond their own limitations of creed, ethnicity, race, etc. The purpose of this theme is fourfold: Firstly, to address cases around the world where a biased attitude to the past is clearly evident, including, but not limited to, the Middle East and South America;.
Secondly, to investigate the context of this biased attitude to the past, and its consequences which have been particularly far-reaching in areas like South America , with a special focus on cases where this has resulted in a tangible influence on people's identity, for example, in Israel and in the territory of the Palestinian Authority;.
Thirdly, we would like to encourage a dialogue on the development of a new code of ethics in these areas that relates specifically to the investigation of the relationship between people and their past;. How archaeological knowledge in the Middle East, South America, and other areas is used or abused for political purposes.
The contextual background of biased attitudes to the past in different parts of the world. Whether archaeologists prevent the results of scientific work from being used against particular groups or factions in these areas. How these biased attitudes to the past influence people's identity. The indigenous perspectives on archaeological inference in different areas. Many perceive the period from the latter end of the 19th century to the present day as the time of the most substantial change and human innovation.
But innovation is not new within the human landscape. New ideas and their successful exploitation have driven change and built the framework of the whole of the human past. Innovation can be positive: New technologies can allow the development of complex societies, specialisation and the development of new human networks through trade and communications. The utilization of new biota and the refinement of animal and plant species can allow the development of new subsistence strategies, which can improve the carrying capacity of the landscape resulting in population expansion.
However, innovation can be negative: All innovation, whether positive or negative, has an impact. It has consequences in the natural environment, climate, biodiversity, water, soil, vegetation and the maintenance of ecosystem function. Fundamental re-organisation of ecosystem process extinction, extirpation and human moderated introductions, whether intentional or unintentional may occur as a result of human innovation. But innovation also has an impact on human society and the cultural landscape.
Innovation can be the product of a paradigm shift, or result in a paradigm shift. It can also bring with it a re-writing of the human ritual and mental landscape.
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Cultural, ecological and biotic responses to innovation and the successful implementation of new ideas and technologies yield distinctive archaeological, ecological, bio-archaeological, and genetic signatures that can be traced through landscapes and time. This theme explores the extent to which it is possible to identify periods of stasis or innovation in the archaeological record. What was the impact of innovation, not only on the natural environment, but also on the human cultural, mental and ritual landscape, and how can we understand the rate of change?
To what extent can we shed light on the processes of innovation and the results and consequences of these substantial changes? Wetland archaeology has provided some of the most exciting discoveries in world archaeology; from bog bodies, boats, trackways, votive deposits to the waterlogged wetland settlements and landscapes of northern and central Europe, New Zealand, Asia and the Pacific Northwest. Sharing a fascination with watery and wild places of rivers, lakes, bogs and coastal wetlands, those archaeologists who practice in this field also use common methods and techniques in the investigation of these archaeologically-rich landscapes.
In recent years, wetland archaeologists have also recognised the need to adopt emerging and changing interpretative approaches to the empirically-rich archaeological data they recover from wetland and waterlogged sites. Most importantly, there is a need to place wetland archaeology across the world, its data and practices, within contemporary debates in theoretical archaeology.
This Wetland Archaeology Across the World theme seeks to bring together world archaeologists, anthropologists, geographers and palaeoecologists who are interested in past and present wetlands and their communities. Topics to be discussed could include landscape archaeological approaches to wetlands environments; the past perception and understanding of wetlands as more than sources of economic benefit, but as storehouses of traditional knowledge, values and meanings; social identity and the ways that wetlands dwelling and using communities might have built distinctive social worlds through their active daily and embodied engagements with dynamic and ever changing wetland environments; the unique temporal rhythms of past lives and places that can be revealed and interrogated using wetland archaeological evidence and the role s of wetland archaeologists — or archaeologists who investigate wetlands — in contemporary political, environmental, ideological and social discourses and conflicts.
Related Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists: 1 (One World Archaeology)
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