Kiernan's death four years later at age 26 was another heavy blow. But he was also prone to jealous rages and excessive drinking, and their relationship was tempestuous. They lived and traveled together until late , when Williams ended the affair. Williams spent the spring and summer of in Rome in the company of an Italian teenager, called "Rafaello" in Williams' Memoirs. He provided financial assistance to the younger man for several years afterward. Williams drew from this for his first novel, The Roman Spring of Mrs. An occasional actor of Sicilian heritage, he had served in the U.
Navy in World War II. This was the enduring romantic relationship of Williams' life, and it lasted 14 years until infidelities and drug abuse on both sides ended it. Merlo, who had become Williams' personal secretary, took on most of the details of their domestic life. He provided a period of happiness and stability, acting as a balance to the playwright's frequent bouts with depression.
His years with Merlo, in an apartment in Manhattan and a modest house in Key West , Florida , were Williams' happiest and most productive.
Shortly after their breakup, Merlo was diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer. Williams returned to him and cared for him until his death on September 20, In the years following Merlo's death, Williams descended into a period of nearly catatonic depression and increasing drug use; this resulted in several hospitalizations and commitments to mental health facilities.
He submitted to injections by Dr. Max Jacobson — known popularly as Dr. Feelgood — who used increasing amounts of amphetamines to overcome his depression.
Jacobson combined these with prescriptions for the sedative Seconal to relieve his insomnia. During this time, influenced by his mother, a Roman Catholic convert, Williams joined the Catholic Church though he later claimed that he never took his conversion seriously. Edwina Dakin died in at the age of Her health had begun failing during the early s and she lived in a care facility from onward.
Williams rarely saw his mother in her later years and retained a strong animosity toward her; friends described his reaction to her death as "mixed". As Williams grew older, he felt increasingly alone; he feared old age and losing his sexual appeal to younger gay men. In the s, when he was in his 60s, Williams had a lengthy relationship with Robert Carroll, a Vietnam veteran and aspiring writer in his 20s. Williams had deep affection for Carroll and respect for what he saw as the younger man's talents.
Along with Williams' sister Rose, Carroll was one of the two people who received a bequest in Williams' will. Because Carroll had a drug problem as did Williams , friends such as Maria St. Just saw the relationship as "destructive". Williams wrote that Carroll played on his "acute loneliness" as an aging gay man. When the two men broke up in , Williams called Carroll a "twerp", but they remained friends until Williams died four years later. Gross , reported that Williams had choked to death from inhaling the plastic cap of a bottle of the type that might contain a nasal spray or eye solution.
He wrote in his will in More specifically, I wish to be buried at sea at as close a possible point as the American poet Hart Crane died by choice in the sea; this would be ascrnatible [sic], this geographic point, by the various books biographical upon his life and death. I wish to be sewn up in a canvas sack and dropped overboard, as stated above, as close as possible to where Hart Crane was given by himself to the great mother of life which is the sea: Otherwise—whereever fits it [sic]. Louis, Missouri, where his mother is buried.
Williams left his literary rights to The University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee , an Episcopal school, in honor of his maternal grandfather, Walter Dakin, an alumnus of the university. The funds support a creative writing program. From February 1 to July 21, , to commemorate the th anniversary of his birth, the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin , the home of Williams' archive, exhibited of his personal items.
The exhibit, titled "Becoming Tennessee Williams," included a collection of Williams manuscripts, correspondence, photographs and artwork. At the time of his death, Williams had been working on a final play, In Masks Outrageous and Austere ,  which attempted to reconcile certain forces and facts of his own life. This was a continuing theme in his work. As of September , author Gore Vidal was completing the play, and Peter Bogdanovich was slated to direct its Broadway debut.
The rectory of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Columbus, Mississippi , where Williams's grandfather Dakin was rector at the time of Williams's birth, was moved to another location in for preservation. Williams's literary legacy is represented by the literary agency headed by Georges Borchardt. It became one of the singer's most famous songs. The festival takes place at the end of March to coincide with Williams's birthday. Louis, Missouri has held an annual Tennessee Williams' Festival, featuring a main production and related events such as literary discussions and new plays inspired by his work.
In the festival produced A Streetcar Named Desire. Postal Service honored Williams on a stamp in as part of its literary arts series. Williams is honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Characters in his plays are often seen as representations of his family members. In addition, he used a lobotomy as a motif in Suddenly, Last Summer.
These two plays were later adapted as highly successful films, by noted directors Elia Kazan Streetcar , with whom Williams developed a very close artistic relationship, and Richard Brooks Cat. Both plays included references to elements of Williams's life such as homosexuality, mental instability, and alcoholism. The Board went along with him after considerable discussion.
Williams wrote The Parade, or Approaching the End of a Summer when he was 29, and worked on it sporadically throughout his life.demo-new.nplan.io/map57.php
A semi-autobiographical depiction of his romance with Kip Kiernan in Provincetown, Massachusetts , it was produced for the first time on October 1, , in Provincetown by the Shakespeare on the Cape production company. His last play went through many drafts as he was trying to reconcile what would be the end of his life. Williams wrote over 70 one-act plays during his lifetime.
The one-acts explored many of the same themes that dominated his longer works. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Columbus, Mississippi , U. New York , New York , U. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of one-act plays by Tennessee Williams.
Tennessee Williams - Wikipedia
Biography portal LGBT portal. The Cambridge Companion to Tennessee Williams. Retrieved December 26, Remembering Dakin Williams, Tennessee's 'professional brother' and a colorful fixture at N. Retrieved September 12, Archived from the original on April 1, Hoffmann December 1, The Weird Tales Story. University of Missouri-Department of Theatre. Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved March 18, Thornton, Margaret Bradham, ed.
The Historic New Orleans Collection. The Kindness of Strangers: The Life of Tennessee Williams. Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved July 25, The New York Times. Tennessee Williams's Postmodern Memory Play". Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism. Retrieved September 13, Program to The Glass Menagerie. Everyman Theatre, Baltimore, —14 season. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved November 6, A Postmodern Approach to Tennessee Williams.
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. Retrieved February 29, Tennessee Williams inducted into Poets' Corner".
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