The oncoming peaking of global oil production and subsequent decline of production , along with the peak of North American natural gas production will very likely precipitate this agricultural crisis much sooner than expected. Since , human diets across the world have become more diverse in the consumption of major commodity staple crops, with a corollary decline in consumption of local or regionally important crops, and thus have become more homogeneous globally.
On April 30, , Thailand, one of the world's biggest rice exporters, announced the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice. It is a project to organize 21 rice exporting countries to create a homonymous organisation to control the price of rice.
The organization attempts to serve the purpose of making a "contribution to ensuring food stability, not just in an individual country but also to address food shortages in the region and the world". However, it is still questionable whether this organization will serve its role as an effective rice price fixing cartel, that is similar to OPEC's mechanism for managing petroleum. Economic analysts and traders said the proposal would go nowhere because of the inability of governments to cooperate with each other and control farmers' output.
Moreover, countries that are involved expressed their concern, that this could only worsen the food security. China needs not less than million hectares of arable land for its food security. China has recently reported a surplus of 15 million hectares. On the other side of the coin, some 4 million hectares of conversion to urban use and 3 million hectares of contaminated land have been reported as well.
But the rapid loss in the area of arable soils appears to be economically meaningless because EU is perceived to be dependent on internal food supply anymore. During the period — the European Union lost 0. The loss of agricultural land during the same time was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus 0.
Such a loss in wheat production is just 0. Additionally, the income from the new land use is often much higher than the one guaranteed by agriculture, as in the case of urbanisation or extraction of raw materials. As anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions reduce the stability of the global climate,  abrupt climate change could become more intense. Particles in the troposphere would quickly rain out, but particles in the stratosphere , especially sulfate , could remain there for years.
The Toba super volcanic eruption approximately 70, years ago may have nearly caused the extinction of humans  see Toba catastrophe theory. Again, primarily sulfate particles could block the sun for years. Solar blocking is not limited to natural causes as nuclear winter is also possible, which refers to the scenario involving widespread nuclear war and burning of cities that release soot into the stratosphere that would stay there for about 10 years.
Agricultural subsidies are paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of their commodities and influence the cost and supply of those commodities. Taxpayers heavily subsidize corn and soy, which are main ingredients in processed foods and fatty foods which the government does not encourage,  and used to fatten livestock. Half of farmland is devoted to corn and soy, the rest is wheat. Soy and corn can be found in sweeteners like high fructose corn syrup. Little land is used for fruit and vegetable farming. Corn, a pillar of American agriculture for years, is now mainly used for ethanol, high fructose corn syrup and bio-based plastics.
The subsidies result in those commodities being cheap to the public, compared to those recommended by dietary guidelines. The Implications of Climate Change for the World's Children", says that access to clean water and food supplies will become more difficult, particularly in Africa and Asia. By way of comparison, in one of the largest food producing countries in the world, the United States, approximately one out of six people are "food insecure", including 17 million children, according to the U.
There are also striking regional variations in food security. Social stigma is another important consideration, and for children, sensitively administering in-school programs can make the difference between success and failure. For instance, when John Woods, co-founder of Full Plates, Full Potential,  learned that embarrassed students were shying away from the free breakfasts being distributed at a school he was working with, he made arrangements to provide breakfast free of charge to all of the students there.
According to a Congressional Budget Office report on child nutrition programs, it is more likely that food insecure children will participate in school nutrition programs than children from food secure families. Students who ate school lunches provided by NLSP showed higher diet quality than if they had their own lunches. Countless partnerships have emerged in the quest for food security. WIC alone served approximately 7. Despite the sizable populations served by these programs, Conservatives have regularly targeted these programs for defunding.
On January 23, , H. The bill seeks to repeal a rule set by the Food and Nutrition Service of the Department of Agriculture, which mandates schools to provide more nutritious and diverse foods across the food plate. Food insecurity in children can lead to developmental impairments and long term consequences such as weakened physical, intellectual and emotional development. Food insecurity also related to obesity for people living in neighborhoods where nutritious food are unavailable or unaffordable.
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Gender inequality both leads to and is a result of food insecurity. However, women face discrimination in access to land, credit, technologies, finance and other services. While those are rough estimates, the significant benefit of closing the gender gap on agricultural productivity cannot be denied. The number of people affected by hunger is extremely high, with enormous effects on women and girls.
To emphasis, "food and nutrition insecurity is a gender justice issue". An interesting fact is that "despite rapid economic growth in India, thousands of women and girls still lack food and nutrition security as a direct result of their lower status compared with men and boys". One of the most up-and-coming techniques to ensuring global food security is the use of genetically modified GM crops. The genome of these crops can be altered to address one or more aspects of the plant that may be preventing it from being grown in various regions under certain conditions.
Many of these alterations can address the challenges that were previously mentioned above, including the water crisis, land degradation, and the ever-changing climate. In agriculture and animal husbandry , the Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield by creating " high-yielding varieties ". Often the handful of hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the rest of the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases.
The area sown to genetically engineered crops in developing countries is rapidly catching up with the area sown in industrial nations. However, the ISAAA is funded by organisations including prominent agricultural biotechnology corporations, such as Monsanto and Bayer, [ citation needed ] and there have been several challenges made to the accuracy of ISAAA's global figures.
Some scientists question the safety of biotechnology as a panacea; agroecologists Miguel Altieri and Peter Rosset have enumerated ten reasons  why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment, or reduce poverty. Based on evidence from previous attempts, there is a likely lack of transferability of one type of GM crop from one region to another. For example, modified crops that have proven successful in Asia from the Green Revolution have failed when tried in regions of Africa.
There is also a drastic lack of education given to governments, farmers, and the community about the science behind GM crops, as well as suitable growing practices. In most relief programs, farmers are given seeds with little explanation and little attention is paid to the resources available to them or even laws that prohibit them from distributing produce.
Governments are often not advised on the economic and health implications that come with growing GM crops, and are then left to make judgments on their own. Because they have so little information regarding these crops, they usually shy away from allowing them or do not take the time and effort required to regulate their use. Members of the community that will then consume the produce from these crops are also left in the dark about what these modifications mean and are often scared off by their 'unnatural' origins.
This has resulted in failure to properly grow crops as well as strong opposition to the unknown practices. A study published in June evaluated the status of the implementation of Golden Rice , which was first developed in the s to produce higher levels of Vitamin A than its non-GMO counterparts. This strain of rice was designed so that malnourished women and children in third world countries who were more susceptible to deficiencies could easily improve their Vitamin A intake levels and prevent blindness, which is a common result. Golden Rice production was centralized to the Philippines, yet there have been many hurdles to jump in order to get production moving.
The study showed that the project is far behind schedule and is not living up to its expectations. Although research on Golden Rice still continues, the country has moved forward with other non-GMO initiatives to address the Vitamin A deficiency problem which is so prevasive in that region. Livestock biodiversity is also threatened by the modernization of agriculture and the focus on more productive major breeds. Therefore, efforts have been made by governments and non-governmental organizations to conserve livestock biodiversity through strategies such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources.
Common GM crops include cotton, maize, and soybeans, all of which are grown throughout North and South America as well as regions of Asia. One of the biggest threats to rice, which is a staple food crop especially in India and other countries within Asia, is blast disease which is a fungal infection that causes lesions to form on all parts of the plant. The latter can be helpful in extreme climates with little arable land and also decreases deforestation, as fewer trees need to be cut down in order to make room for crop fields.
This addresses various health concerns associated with such pesticides and can also work to improve biodiversity within the area in which these crops are grown. In a review of Borlaug's publication entitled Ending world hunger: GM crops are as natural and safe as today's bread wheat, opined Dr.
Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality global food insecurity would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve. The body of scientific evidence concluding that GM foods are safe to eat and do not pose environmental risks is wide.
The UN Millennium Development Goals are one of the initiatives aimed at achieving food security in the world. The first Millennium Development Goal states that the UN "is to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty" by This approach emphasizes the physical availability of food; the social, economic and physical access people have to food; and the nutrition, safety and cultural appropriateness or adequacy of food.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations stated in The State of Food Insecurity in the World that countries that have reduced hunger often had rapid economic growth, specifically in their agricultural sectors. These countries were also characterized as having slower population growth , lower HIV rates, and higher rankings in the Human Development Index. In The State of Food Insecurity in the World , the FAO restated its focus on economic growth and agricultural growth to achieve food security and added a focus on the poor and on "nutrition-sensitive" growth.
For example, economic growth should be used by governments to provide public services to benefit poor and hungry populations. The FAO also cited smallholders, including women, as groups that should be involved in agricultural growth to generate employment for the poor. For economic and agricultural growth to be "nutrition-sensitive", resources should be utilized to improve access to diverse diets for the poor as well as access to a safe water supply and to healthcare.
Development approaches include investing in rural markets and rural infrastructure. To obtain short-term food security, vouchers for seeds, fertilizer , or access to services could promote agricultural production. The use of conditional or unconditional food or cash transfers was another approach the FAO noted. Conditional transfers could include school feeding programs , while unconditional transfers could include general food distribution, emergency food aid or cash transfers.
A third approach is the use of subsidies as safety nets to increase the purchasing power of households. The FAO stated that "approaches should be human rights-based, target the poor, promote gender equality, enhance long-term resilience and allow sustainable graduation out of poverty. The FAO noted that some countries have been successful in fighting food insecurity and decreasing the number of people suffering from undernourishment. Bangladesh is an example of a country that has met the Millennium Development Goal hunger target. The FAO credited growth in agricultural productivity and macroeconomic stability for the rapid economic growth in the s that resulted in an increase in food security.
Irrigation systems were established through infrastructure development programs. Two programs, HarvestPlus and the Golden Rice Project, provided biofortified crops in order to decrease micronutrient deficiencess. On this day, the FAO hosts a variety of event at the headquarters in Rome and around the world, as well as seminars with UN officials. In particular, the WFP provides food aid to refugees and to others experiencing food emergencies. It also seeks to improve nutrition and quality of life to the most vulnerable populations and promote self-reliance. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.
The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The main global policy to reduce hunger and poverty are the recently approved Sustainable Development Goals. In particular Goal 2: Zero Hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by The United States Agency for International Development USAID proposes several key steps to increasing agricultural productivity which is in turn key to increasing rural income and reducing food insecurity.
Since the s, the U. According to Tim Josling, a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University , food stamps or other methods of distribution of purchasing power directly to consumers might fit into the range of international programs under consideration to tackle food insecurity.
There are strong, direct relationships between agricultural productivity, hunger, poverty, and sustainability. Three-quarters of the world's poor live in rural areas and make their living from agriculture. Hunger and child malnutrition are greater in these areas than in urban areas. Moreover, the higher the proportion of the rural population that obtains its income solely from subsistence farming without the benefit of pro-poor technologies and access to markets , the higher the incidence of malnutrition.
Therefore, improvements in agricultural productivity aimed at small-scale farmers will benefit the rural poor first. Food and feed crop demand is likely to double in the next 50 years, as the global population approaches nine billion. Growing sufficient food will require people to make changes such as increasing productivity in areas dependent on rainfed agriculture ; improving soil fertility management; expanding cropped areas; investing in irrigation ; conducting agricultural trade between countries; and reducing gross food demand by influencing diets and reducing post-harvest losses.
According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture , a major study led by the International Water Management Institute IWMI , managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people. It has called for a new era of water investments and policies for upgrading rainfed agriculture that would go beyond controlling field-level soil and water to bring new freshwater sources through better local management of rainfall and runoff.
With more money, farmers are more likely to diversify production and grow higher-value crops, benefiting not only themselves but the economy as a whole. Researchers suggest forming an alliance between the emergency food program and community-supported agriculture , as some countries' food stamps cannot be used at farmer's markets and places where food is less processed and grown locally. The minimum annual global wheat storage is approximately two months. Insurance is a financial instrument, which allows exposed individuals to pool resources to spread their risk.ldi.mx/includes/action/reactive-transport-in-soil-and-groundwater-processes-and-models.php
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They do so by contributing premium to an insurance fund, which will indemnify those who suffer insured loss. Insurance can be designed to protect many types of individuals and assets against single or multiple perils and buffer insured parties against sudden and dramatic income or asset loss. Crop insurance is purchased by agricultural producers to protect themselves against either the loss of their crops due to natural disasters.
Two type of insurances are available: In particular in poor countries facing food security problems, index-based insurances offer some interesting advantages: An advantage of index-based insurance is that it can potentially be delivered at lower cost. A significant barrier that hinders uptake of claim-based insurance is the high transaction cost for searching for prospective policyholders, negotiating and administering contracts, verifying losses and determining payouts.
Index insurance eliminates the loss verification step, thereby mitigating a significant transaction cost. A second advantage of index-based insurance is that, because it pays an indemnity based on the reading of an index rather than individual losses, it eliminates much of the fraud, moral hazard and adverse selection, which are common in classical claim-based insurance. A further advantage of index insurance is that payments based on a standardized and indisputable index also allow for a fast indemnity payment.
The indemnity payment could be automated, further reducing transaction costs. Basis risk is a major disadvantage of index-based insurance. It is the situation where an individual experiences a loss without receiving payment or vice versa. Basis risk is a direct result of the strength of the relation between the index that estimates the average loss by the insured group and the loss of insured assets by an individual. The weaker this relation the higher the basis risk. High basis risk undermines the willingness of potential clients to purchase insurance. It thus challenges insurance companies to design insurances such as to minimize basis risk.
The Food Justice Movement has been seen as a unique and multifaceted movement with relevance to the issue of food security. It has been described as a movement about social-economic and political problems in connection to environmental justice , improved nutrition and health, and activism.
Today, a growing number of individuals and minority groups are embracing the Food Justice due to the perceived increase in hunger within nations such as the United States as well as the amplified effect of food insecurity on many minority communities, particularly the Black and Latino communities. An example of a prominent organization within the food justice movement has been the Coalition of Immokalee Workers , which is a worker-based human rights organization that has been recognized globally for its accomplishments in the areas of human trafficking, social responsibility and gender-based violence at work.
The Coalition of Immoaklee Workers most prominent accomplishment related to the food justice space has been its part in implementing the Fair Food Program which increased the pay and bettered working conditions of farm workers in the tomato industry who had been exploited for generations.
This accomplishment provided over 30, workers more income and the ability to access better and more healthy foods for themselves and their families. Another organization in the food justice space is the Fair Food Network, an organization that has embraced the mission of helping familIes who need healthy food to gain access to it while also increasing the livelihoold for farmers in America and growing local economies.
Started by Oran B. Bees and other pollinating insects are currently improving the food production of 2 billion small farmers worldwide, helping to ensure food security for the world's population. Research shows that if pollination is managed well on small diverse farms, with all other factors being equal, crop yields can increase by a significant median of 24 percent. How animal pollinators positively affect fruit condition and nutrient content is still being discovered. As of [update] the concept of food security has mostly focused on food calories rather than the quality and nutrition of food.
The concept of nutrition security evolved over time. In , it has been defined as "adequate nutritional status in terms of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals for all household members at all times". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Food safety. Food security in Mexico. Hunger in the United States. Feed the Future Initiative. Land degradation and Desertification. Climate change and agriculture. Agriculture and petroleum and Peak oil's effects on agriculture. Agricultural policy of the United States. Gender and food security. Sustainable development portal Hunger relief portal Food portal Globalization portal.
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A prioritised crop wild relative inventory to help underpin global food security. Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 20 June Increased production may come from creating new farmland, which may ameliorate carbon dioxide emissions if done through reclamation of desert as in Israel and Palestine , or may worsen emissions if done through slash and burn farming, as in Brazil. As the Earth is entering the Anthropocene , an epoch characterized by human impacts such as climate change , agriculture and agricultural development are at risk.
Agriculture has an enormous environmental footprint, and is simultaneously leading to huge amounts of environmental changes globally and being hugely impacted by these global changes. This is complicated by the fact that the Earth is undergoing rising amounts of environmental risks. Sustainable agriculture provides a potential solution to enable agricultural systems to feed a growing population while successfully operating within the changing environmental conditions.
In , the United Nations reported on " Organic Agriculture and Food Security ",  stating that using organic and sustainable agriculture could be used as a tool to reach global food security without expanding land usage and reducing environmental impacts. Another way to define sustainable agriculture is to give attention to the "human and environmental aspects,"  because of the turn to a more unsustainable way of farming in U.
During the Great Depression in the United States many farming families were living in subhuman and hungry conditions and treated "sustainability as a resource-input and food-output equation. There has been evidence provided by developing nations from the early s stating that when people in their communities are not factored into the agricultural process that serious harm is done. The social scientist Charles Kellogg has stated that, "In a final effort, exploited people pass their suffering to the land.
For if something is sustainable, it should be that way in all aspects of it, not just the crop yield or soil health. It has been seen in the developing country of Bangladesh , the starving of rural farming communities due to their unsustainable farming methods. Sustainable agriculture mean the ability to permanently and continuously "feed its constituent populations.
Therefore, as a result of the banana crisis in Uganda caused by the BBW, the government issued the National Biotechnology and Biosafety bill which will allow scientists that are part of the National Banana Research Program to start experimenting with genetically modified organisms .
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This effort has the potential to help local communities because a significant portion live off the food they grow themselves and it will keep their economy in check because their main sources of produce will remain stable. In the past 30 years in the United States the number of women farm operators has tripled.
Much of the growth is due to women farming outside the "male dominated field of conventional agriculture". With the change of laws in land ownership over the past century, women are now allowed all the same freedom of land ownership that men have. Sustainable agriculture has become a topic of interest in the international policy arena, especially with regards to its potential to reduce the risks associated with a changing climate and growing human population.
The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change , as part of its recommendations for policy makers on achieving food security in the face of climate change, urged that sustainable agriculture must be integrated into national and international policy. The Commission stressed that increasing weather variability and climate shocks will negatively affect agricultural yields, necessitating early action to drive change in agricultural production systems towards increasing resilience.
It also called for dramatically increased investments in sustainable agriculture in the next decade, including in national research and development budgets, land rehabilitation, economic incentives, and infrastructure improvement. Most agricultural professionals agree that there is a "moral obligation to pursue [the] goal [of] sustainability. Because if an unsustainable method is used on a large scale it will have a massive negative effect on the environment and human population.
The best way to create policy for agriculture is to be free of any bias. A good review would be done with "practical wisdom,"  a virtue identified by Aristotle , distinguishing practical wisdom from scientific knowledge, this coming from Nichomachean Ethics. The science of agriculture is called " agronomy ", the root of this word relating to scientific law.
Practical wisdom requires recognition of past failures in agriculture to better attain a more sustainable agricultural system. The use of available city space e. Potential advantages include year-round production, isolation from pests and diseases, controllable resource recycling, and reduced transportation costs. Increasing threats of climate change have influenced cities and public offiials are thinking more proactively about the ways they can deliver services and food more efficiently. The environmental cost of transportation could be avoided if people take back their connection to fresh food.
The main debate on how sustainable agriculture might be achieved centers around two different approaches: The technocentric approach argues that sustainability can be attained through a variety of strategies, from the view that state-led modification of the industrial system like conservation-oriented farming systems should be implemented, to the argument that biotechnology is the best way to meet the increasing demand for food.
There are different scientific communities that are looking at the topic of sustainable agriculture through two separate lenses: While both of these frameworks are similar, they look at the function of agriculture in different lights. Those that employ the multifunctional agriculture philosophy focus on farm-centered approaches, and define function as being the outputs of agricultural activity. These additional functions include renewable natural resource management and conservation of landscape and biodiversity.
Since World War II, dominant models of agriculture in the United States and the entire national food system have been characterized by a focus on monetary profitability at the expense of social and environmental integrity. In sustainable agriculture, changes in lower rates of soil and nutrient loss, improved soil structure , and higher levels of beneficial microorganisms are not quick. In conventional agriculture the benefits are easily visible with no weeds, pests, etc. Many benefits are not visible, so they are often unknown.
Not all geographic regions lend themselves easily to sustainable agriculture. While all parts of the world with human population need food to survive, many of these places are located in climates that make food production difficult. In Nunavik, which is located in northern Canada, it was discovered that the sustainable agricultural development needed to provide its native population with better nutrition would be difficult to adopt due to the regions isolation and arctic climate.
The technological advancement of the past few decades have allowed access to these areas and the means to develop sustainable agriculture in some of these previously obstructed regions. The implementation of greenhouses has been an effective method in overcoming the geographic barriers in certain parts of the world.
For example, Nepal has implemented greenhouses to deal with its high altitude and mountainous regions. Desalination techniques have been developed to allow greater access to fresh water in areas that have historically had limited access.
The desalination process turns salt water into fresh water and will allow the irrigation of crops to continue without making a harmful impact on the water supply. Efforts toward more sustainable agriculture are supported in the sustainability community, however, these are often viewed only as incremental steps and not as an end.
Some foresee a true sustainable steady state economy that may be very different from today's: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.
Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. Government ministries Universities and colleges. Agriculture by country companies Biotechnology Livestock Meat industry Poultry farming. Climate change and agriculture. Agriculture and Agronomy portal Sustainable development portal Ecology portal. University of New England. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 21 October New Roots for Agriculture. Foreword by Wendell Berry.
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