An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future

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In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. Details Collect From YY YY pbk Main Reading Room. Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video. How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? The foreign relations of Canada are Canada's relations with other governments and peoples.

Britain was the chief foreign contact before World War II. Since then Canada's most important relationship, being the largest trading relationship in the world, is with the United States. The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had no control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late s. Up to that time, wars, negotiations and treaties were carried out by the British government to settle disputes concerning the colonies over fishing and boundaries and to promote trade.

Before the granting of responsible government , British diplomats handled foreign affairs and had the goal of achieving British goals, especially peace with the United States; domestic Canadian interests were secondary. The Canadian—American Reciprocity Treaty of signaled an important change in relations between Britain and its North American colonies.

In this treaty, the Canadas were allowed to impose tariff duties more favourable to a foreign country the U. Soon after Confederation, the first prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald appointed Sir John Rose as his lobbyist in London. Although the British government was concerned about this nascent Canadian diplomacy, it finally consented to giving Galt the formal title of High Commissioner in A trade commissioner was appointed to Australia in As High Commissioner, Charles Tupper helped negotiate an agreement with France in but it was countersigned by the British ambassador as the Queen's official representative to France.

Meanwhile, in the province of Quebec made its first of many forays into the international community by sending a representative, Hector Fabre to Paris in Canada's responses to international events elsewhere were limited at this time. During tensions between Britain and Russia, for example, Canada constructed a few limited defences but did little else. By the time of the British campaign in Sudan of —85 , however, Canada was expected to contribute troops.

Since Ottawa was reluctant to become involved, the Governor General of Canada privately raised voyageurs at Britain's expense to help British forces on the Nile river. By , many Canadians offered to volunteer as part of a potential Canadian force, however the government declined to act. This stood in sharp contrast to Australia New South Wales , which raised and paid for its own troops. The first Canadian commercial representative abroad was John Short Larke. Larke became Canada's first trade commissioner following a successful trade delegation to Australia led by Canada's first Minister of Trade and Commerce, Mackenzie Bowell.

The Alaska boundary dispute , simmering since the US purchased Alaska from Russia of , became critical when gold was discovered in the Canadian Yukon during the late s.

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Alaska controlled all the possible ports of entry. Canada argued its boundary included the port of Skagway , held by the U. The dispute went to arbitration in , but the British delegate sided with the Americans, angering Canadians who felt the British had betrayed Canadian interests to curry favour with the U.

Laurier signed a reciprocity treaty with the U. Conservatives under Robert Borden denounced it, saying it would integrate Canada's economy into that of the U. The Conservative party won the Canadian federal election, Due to Canada's important contributions to the British war effort in —18, Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden insisted that Canada be treated as a separate signatory to the Treaty of Versailles.

In Canada became a full member of the League of Nations , and acted independently of London. It was elected to the League Council governing board in It did not play a leading role, and generally opposed sanctions or military action by the League. The League was virtually defunct by The government operated a Canadian War Mission in Washington, to , but it was not until William Lyon Mackenzie King became Prime Minister in that Canada seriously pursued an independent foreign policy.

In , the government appointed a permanent diplomat to Geneva to deal with the League of Nations and International Labour Organization. Following the Balfour Declaration of , King appointed Vincent Massey as the first Canadian minister plenipotentiary in Washington , raised the office in Paris to legation status under Philippe Roy , and opened a legation in Tokyo with Herbert Marler as envoy Canada achieved legislative independence with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in , although British diplomatic missions continued to represent Canada in most countries throughout the s.

In the s, the Mackenzie King government strongly supported the appeasement policy of the Chamberlain government in London toward Nazi Germany. While Canada hosted two major Allied conferences in Quebec in and , neither Prime Minister Mackenzie King nor senior generals and admirals were invited to take part in any of the discussions. Its current name is "Canadian International Council".

Instead it championed Canadian national autonomy and sought to enlarge the nation's international role, while challenging British imperialism. Numerous diplomats attended its conferences and supported its new mission. Canada's foreign policy moved away from imperialism and toward the sort of anti-colonialism promoted by the United States.

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CIIA leaders and Canadian officials worked to encouraged nationalist forces in India, China, and Southeast Asia that sought to reject colonial rule and Western dominance. Diplomats reminiscing about the postwar era stress the outsized role of Lester B. Pearson ; they fondly call the s and s a "golden era" of Canadian foreign policy.

It certainly stood apart from the embarrassing isolationism of the s, which James Eayrs called a low, dishonest decade. Laurent , handled foreign relations in cautious fashion. It was elected to the UN Security Council. It helped design NATO. However, Mackenzie King rejected free trade with the United States, [15] and decided not to play a role in the Berlin airlift. It played a modest role in the postwar formation of the United Nations , as well as the International Monetary Fund.

It played a somewhat larger role in in designing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. From to , foreign policy was based on close relationships with the United States, especially in trade and defense policy, with Canada an active member of NATO as well as a bilateral partner with the United States in forming a northern defense against Soviet bombers. For Lester Pearson, cultural differences, Francophonee versus Anglophone, could perhaps be narrowed by involvement in world affairs. Canadians could gain a broader, more cosmopolitan, more liberal outlook.

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A sense of national identity, built on the middle size nation thesis, was possible. Perhaps international commitment would produce a sense of purpose and thereby unite Canadians. There were voices on both left and right that Warned against being too close to the United States. Few Canadians listened before Instead, there was wide consensus on Canadian foreign and defense policies to Bothwell, Drummond and English state:. However the consensus did not the last. By the Suez crisis alienated Canada from both Britain and France; politicians distrusted American leadership, businessmen questioned American financial investments; and intellectuals ridiculed the values of American television and Hollywood offerings that all Canadians watched.

Foreign-policy, from being a winning issue for the Liberals, was fast becoming a losing one. The success of the Suez peacekeeping mission led Canadians to embrace peacekeeping as a suitable role for a middle-sized country, looking for a role, and having high regards for the United Nations. This led to sending a peacekeeping force to Cyprus in , when two NATO members, Greece and Turkey were at swords' point over ethnic violence in the historic British colony. The Canadians left in after 28 were killed and many wounded in the operation. Peacekeeping help was needed in the Belgian Congo in , after Belgium pulled out.

There were numerous other small interventions. Progressive Conservative John Diefenbaker tried to improve relations with Britain even as it was trying to enter the European Common Market, which would greatly weaken its historic ties with Canada. Relations with President John Kennedy were much less cordial. Diefenbaker opposed apartheid in the South Africa and helped force it out of the Commonwealth of Nations. His indecision on whether to accept Bomarc nuclear missiles from the United States led to his government's downfall.

The Vietnam War was very unpopular in Canada, which provided only minimal diplomatic support and no military participation. Pearson as Prime Minister avoided any involvement in Vietnam. Under Liberal Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and foreign policy was much less important than internal unity. There were multiple new approaches, some of which involved standing apart from the United States. While not cutting back on trade with the United States, he did emphasize improved trade with Europe and Asia. By his third year in office, however, Trudeau launched a new initiatives, emphasizing Canada's role as a middle power with the ability to engage in active peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations.

Although Canada remained part of NATO, a strong military presence was considered unnecessary by , and funding was diverted into peacekeeping missions. Only 20, soldiers were left. Andrew Richter calls this, "Forty years of neglect, indifference, and apathy. In , responsibility for trade was added with the creation of the Department of External Affairs and International Trade. Canada has often carried out its foreign policy through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions.

There are two major elements of Canadian foreign relations, Canada-US relations and multilateralism. Canada's international relations are the responsibility of the Department of Global Affairs , which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs , a position currently held by Chrystia Freeland. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions. Canada 's foreign aid was administered by the Canadian International Development Agency , which provided aid and assistance to other countries around the world through various methods.

However a growing focus on development, defense, and diplomacy in recent decades has produced a concentration of foreign aid funding to countries determined to be security risks to Canadian policy. For example, in the largest recipients of Canada's official developmental assistance were Afghanistan and Iraq , two nations in conflict with the United States of America and its allies at the time. The structural emphasis on security and industry development has contributed to a fixed foreign policy that generally fails to consider global health and international social and economic inequalities.

The foreign aid provided by the country became less "people-centered" and less health-related. The provinces have a high level of freedom to operate internationally, dating from Quebec 's first representative to France in , Hector Fabre. Alberta has had representatives abroad, starting with Alberta House in London 37 Hill Street , since , and British Columbia around 25 years before that.

Provincial premiers were always part of the famous Team Canada trade missions of the s. Provinces have always participated in some foreign relations, and appointed agents general in the United Kingdom and France for many years, but they cannot legislate treaties. The French-speaking provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick are members of la Francophonie , and Ontario has announced it wishes to join. Alberta opened an office in Washington, D. With the exception of Quebec, none of these efforts undermine the ability of the federal government to conduct foreign affairs. Both countries established diplomatic relations in Canada currently has a development assistance program in Zambia, which is focused on the health sector to provide Zambians with equal access to quality health care.

Canada and Zambia are currently in the process of negotiating a Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement. In Canada's largest imports were decorative items gold , wines and Iron and steal pipes. The relationship between both nations today partly falls within the larger context of Canada—Caribbean relations. Canada has maintained consistently cordial relations with Cuba, in spite of considerable pressure from the United States, and the island is also one of the most popular travel destinations for Canadian citizens. Canada-Cuba relations can be traced back to the 18th century, when vessels from the Atlantic provinces of Canada traded codfish and beer for rum and sugar.

Cuba was the first country in the Caribbean selected by Canada for a diplomatic mission. Official diplomatic relations were established in , when Emile Vaillancourt, a noted writer and historian, was designated Canada's representative in Cuba.

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Canada and Mexico were the only two countries in the hemisphere to maintain uninterrupted diplomatic relations with Cuba following the Cuban Revolution in Despite the fact that historic ties between the two nations have been coldly dormant, relations between Canada and Mexico have positively changed in recent years; seeing as both countries brokered the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage , conflict during the early years of the U. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of , which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful.

Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U. Canada and the United States are currently the world's largest trading partners, share the world's longest shared border , [74] and have significant interoperability within the defense sphere. In February there was a Canadian consulate-general in Caracas and a Venezuelan consulate-general in Montreal.

In that year the Venezuelan Consul General, on behalf of the government of Venezuela, made a rapprochement with Canada in order to open direct diplomatic representations between the two countries; [75] but the Canadian government delayed the opening of a diplomatic mission in Venezuela because of the lack of enough suitable personnel to staff a Canadian mission in Venezuela and the impossibility of Canada beginning a representation in Venezuela in that year without considering a policy of expansion of Canadian representation abroad.

In the interest of protecting Canadian trade with Venezuela and considering the difficulties for business in being without a Canadian representation in Caracas, Canada was pushed to accept the Venezuelan offer of exchanging diplomatic missions. On the other hand, Venezuela established an embassy in Canada in The Canadian government announced in February that it was adding Afghanistan to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid. Since , China has emerged as Canada's second largest trading partner, passing Britain and Japan. China now accounts for approximately six percent of Canada's total world trade.

Between and , exports to China grew by percent, but only represented about 1. Between and , imports from China grew by almost percent. Canadian-Iranian relations date back to , up to which point the Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran was handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in and raised to embassy status in Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution , Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa which was upgraded to embassy status, however in Canada severed all diplomatic ties with Iran in regard to Iran's treatment of human rights.

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At the United Nations in , Canada was one of the thirty-three countries that voted in favour of the creation of a Jewish homeland. Canada delayed granting de facto recognition to Israel until December , and finally gave full de jure recognition to the new nation on 11 May , only after it was admitted into the United Nations UN. A week later, Avraham Harman became Israel's first consul general in Canada. The two countries enjoy an amicable companionship in many areas; diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa.

In , Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia; [86] and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form. Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in , when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In , Canada sent its first ambassador. The embassy was closed in and reopened in January Lebanon opened a consulate in Ottawa in A consulate-general replaced the consulate in , and it was upgraded to full embassy status in Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in , ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in When Mongolia formed a democratic government in after the collapse of the Soviet Union , Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre , Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.

Canada and North Korea share very little trade due to the destabilizing element North Korea has caused in the Asia Pacific region. The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries. Turkey is Canada's 34th largest trade partner. Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain.

The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50, Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the UN, G8 and others to resolve the island's divided status. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada.

He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family. Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territoriality established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See—Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the s. Canada and Ireland enjoy friendly relations, the importance of these relations centres on the history of Irish migration to Canada. Canada recognized Kosovo on 18 March Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges.

Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights. Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on 27 January Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in [] [] and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in The main bilateral agreement signed between the two governments is the joint declaration of the "Special Partnership" between the two countries signed in and renewed in London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact, which has grown deeper over the years; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations , and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.

New Zealand and Canada have a longstanding relationship that has been fostered by both countries' shared history and culture, by their membership the Commonwealth of Nations and links between residents of both countries. New Zealand and Canada also have links through business or trade relations, the United Nations, the Commonwealth and mutual treaty agreements. New Zealand-Canada relations are important to both countries. One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China 13 October long before the Americans did 1 January It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba , despite pressures from the United States.

Canadian Government guidance for export controls on weapons systems is published by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Canada is and has been a strong supporter of multilateralism. The country is one of the world's leading peacekeepers , sending soldiers under the U. Pearson , is credited for his contributions to modern international peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a " middle power " able to work with large and small nations alike.

This was demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts. Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the Invasion of Iraq , but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War , Afghanistan and Libya.

Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Canada has not been involved in any major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council ; although the Canadian government does support UN reform, in order to strengthen UN efficiency and effectiveness.

Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City. Canada is working on setting up military bases around the world, while reducing aid and diplomatic efforts. However, by invoking the "three Ds" defense, diplomacy, and development as the fundamental basis for Canadian foreign policy, and then implementing this in a manner that conforms more to military security and trade interests, Canada has successfully distanced itself from the humanitarian objectives of foreign aid, with the human security goal far from being achieved.

Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories , although no Caribbean nation has implemented such a proposal. Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms , with which Canada has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth. In recent years Canadian leaders have taken increasing interest in Latin America.

Canada has an ongoing trade dispute with Brazil. Canada is a member of the following organizations: Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon , but accepted a International Court of Arbitration ruling.

A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U. Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in , followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in , both without asking for Canadian permission. In response, the Americans in stated, "We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide.

Essentially, the Americans agreed to ask for the consent of the Government of Canada without conceding that they were obliged to. In January , David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters. Also, there is a dispute with Denmark over the sovereignty of the uninhabited Hans Island and surrounding waters in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland.

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Along with other nations in the Arctic Council , Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Russia, the maritime boundaries in the far north will be decided after countries have completed their submissions, due in Russia has made an extensive claim based on the Russian position that everything that is an extension of the Lomonosov Ridge should be assigned to Russia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Federal electoral districts Federal electoral system 42nd federal election Provincial electoral districts Politics of the provinces. Federalism Structure of the federal government Constitutional law Royal prerogative Regions Political culture Foreign relations Office-holders Political movements Aboriginal self-government First Nations bands.

List of Canadian peacekeeping missions. Canada—European Union relations and Transatlantic relations. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Former colonies and territories in Canada. Federal-Provincial Relations in Canada, Canadians on the Nile. The Canadian Encyclopedia online ed. Retrieved 17 January A Study in Canadian-American Relations. Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Granatstein, "Happily on the Margins: Waging War, Formulating Peace: Canada, Great Britain, and the United States in pp Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies.

The Mackenzie King Era pp Reappraising Canada's International Relations in the s and s. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy pp , Power, Politics, and Provincialism. Drummond; John English U of Toronto Press. The violence of Canadian Peacekeepers in Somalia. Granatstein, "The End of Peacekeeping? A Study in Diefenbaker's Years Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy pp Life of Lester Pearson — Permanence and Evolution of a National Paradigm.

Granatstein, and Robert Bothwell, Pirouette: Pierre Trudeau and Canadian foreign policy Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 10 March Canadian foreign aid for global health: Human security opportunity lost.

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Episodes in Japan-Canada Relations. Embassy of Canada Bilateral Relations. A Brief History, —". Canadian and International Education. Archived from the original on 19 December Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 4 April Library of Parliament; Canada. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 31 January Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 18 March The page you are looking for does not exist" PDF.

Articulating the Canadian Interest," in L. Archived from the original on 3 November The United Nations Office at Geneva. Human security opportunity lost, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, Rebranding Canada in an Age of Anxiety. In brief remarks at the signing, Secretary-General Carrington expressed appreciation to the Government of Canada for its support, and pointed out that over the years "Canada had proven to be a "special friend" of the Caribbean at the regional and bilateral levels.

Bernstein, Alan June An independent foreign policy for Canada?: University of Toronto Press. Canada Among Nations, In Defence of Canada. Hampson, Fen Osler, and James A. Justin Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Policy: The Shaping of Peace: Canada and the Search for World Order. University of Toronto Press, , Irwin, Rosalind Ethics and security in Canadian foreign policy. Handbook of Canadian foreign policy Lexington Books, , essays by experts; pp excerpt James, Patrick. Kirton, John and Don Munton, eds.

Comparing the Canadian and American Policy Shifts. McCullough, Colin, and Robert Teigrob, eds. Canada and the United Nations: Legacies, Limits, Prospects Canada and the New American Empire: Following the Americans to the Persian Gulf:

An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future
An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future
An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future
An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future
An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future
An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada?: Challenges and Choices for the Future

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