As Walpole was defeated on the vote, he agreed to resign from the Government.
The news of the naval disaster against Spain in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias also prompted the end of his political career. King George II wept on his resignation and begged to see him frequently. Five days later he formally relinquished the seals of office. Although no longer First Lord of the Treasury, Walpole remained politically involved as an advisor. His former colleagues were still pleased to see him, perhaps in part because he retained the king's favour. After his resignation, his main political roles were to support the government by means of advice, to dole out some patronage and to speak on the ministry's behalf in the Lords.
A committee was created to inquire into Walpole's ministry but no substantial evidence of wrongdoing or corruption was discovered. Though no longer a member of the Cabinet, Orford continued to maintain personal influence with George II and was often dubbed the "Minister behind the Curtain" for this advice and influence. He advised Pelham to make use of his seat in the Commons to serve as a bridge between the King and Parliament, just as Walpole had done.
During this time, Walpole also made two interventions in the Lords. The first was in January in the debate on Hanoverian troops being kept in British pay. Walpole prevented them from losing the troops. In his second intervention, Walpole, with fear of a Jacobite-inspired invasion in February , made a speech on the situation. Frederick, Prince of Wales, usually hostile to Walpole, warmly received him at his court the next day, most likely because his father's throne, and the future of the whole Hanoverian dynasty, was at risk from the Stuart Pretender.www.naddah.com/sites/89/712.html
Along with his political interests in his last years, Walpole enjoyed the pleasures of the hunt. Back at his recently rebuilt country seat in Houghton, Norfolk, such pastimes were denied him due to "dismal weather". His art collection gave him particular pleasure. He had spent much money in the s and s in building up a collection of Old Masters from all over Europe. Walpole also concerned himself with estate matters.
His health, never good, deteriorated rapidly toward the end of ; Orford died in London in , aged nearly sixty-nine years; he was buried in the parish church of St Martin in Houghton, Norfolk. Upon the death of the third Earl, the Earldom was inherited by the first Earl's younger son Horace Walpole , who is now remembered for his many thousands of insightful letters, published in 48 volumes by Yale University Press. Walpole exercised a tremendous influence on the politics of his day.
The Tories became a minor, insignificant faction, and the Whigs became a dominant and largely unopposed party. His influence on the development of the uncodified constitution of Great Britain was less momentous even though he is regarded as Great Britain's first Prime Minister. He relied primarily on the favour of the King rather than on the support of the House of Commons. His power stemmed from his personal influence instead of the influence of his office.
Most of his immediate successors were, comparatively speaking, extremely weak; it would take several decades more for the premiership to develop into the most powerful and most important office in the country. Walpole's strategy of keeping Great Britain at peace contributed greatly to the country's prosperity. Walpole also managed to secure the position of the Hanoverian Dynasty , and effectively countervailed Jacobitism.
The Jacobite threat ended, soon after Walpole's term ended, with the defeat of the rebellion of He was an honorable man and a sound Whig. He was not, as the Jacobites and discontented Whigs of his time have represented him, and as ill-informed people still represent him, a prodigal and corrupt minister. They charged him in their libels and seditious conversations as having first reduced corruption to a system. Such was their cant. But he was far from governing by corruption. He governed by party attachments. The charge of systematic corruption is less applicable to him, perhaps, than to any minister who ever served the crown for so great a length of time.
He gained over very few from the Opposition. Without being a genius of the first class, he was an intelligent, prudent, and safe minister. He loved peace; and he helped to communicate the same disposition to nations at least as warlike and restless as that in which he had the chief direction of affairs. With many virtues, public and private, he had his faults; but his faults were superficial.
A careless, coarse, and over familiar style of discourse, without sufficient regard to persons or occasions, and an almost total want of political decorum, were the errours by which he was most hurt in the public opinion: But justice must be done. The prudence, steadiness, and vigilance of that man, joined to the greatest possible lenity in his character and his politics, preserved the crown to this royal family; and with it, their laws and liberties to this country. Lord Chesterfield expressed scepticism as to whether "an impartial Character of Sr Robert Walpole, will or can be transmitted to Posterity, for he governed this Kingdom so long that the various passions of Mankind mingled, and in a manner incorporated themselves, with every thing that was said or writt concerning him.
Never was Man more flattered nor more abused, and his long power, was probably the chief cause of both". In private life he was good natured, Chearfull, social. Inelegant in his manners, loose in his morals.
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He had a coarse wit, which he was too free of for a Man in his Station, as it is always inconsistent with dignity. He was very able as a Minister, but without a certain Elevation of mind He was both the ablest Parliament man, and the ablest manager of a Parliament, that I believe ever lived Money, not Prerogative, was the chief Engine of his administration, and he employed it with a success that in a manner disgraced humanity When he found any body proof, against pecuniary temptations, which alass! For he laughed at and ridiculed all notions of Publick virtue, and the love of one's Country, calling them the Chimerical school boy flights of Classical learning ; declaring himself at the same time, No Saint, no Spartan, no reformer.
He would frequently ask young fellows at their first appearance in the world, while their honest hearts were yet untainted, well are you to be an old Roman? And thus he was more dangerous to the morals, than to the libertys of his country, to which I am persuaded that he meaned no ill in his heart. His Name will not be recorded in History among the best men, or the best Ministers, but much much less ought it to be ranked among the worst.
George II offered this home to Walpole as a personal gift in , but Walpole accepted it only as the official residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, taking up his residence there on 22 September His immediate successors did not always reside in Number 10 preferring their larger private residences but the home has nevertheless become established as the official residence of the Prime Minister in his or her capacity as First Lord of the Treasury.
Walpole has attracted attention from heterodox economists as a pioneer of protectionist policies, in the form of tariffs and subsidies to woollen manufacturers. As a result, the industry became Britain's primary export, enabling the country to import the raw materials and food that fueled the industrial revolution. Walpole is immortalised in St Stephen's Hall , where he and other notable Parliamentarians look on at visitors to Parliament.
Walpole built as his country seat Houghton Hall in Norfolk. Walpole also left behind a collection of art which he had assembled during his career. This collection—then regarded as one of the finest in Europe  —now lies in the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg , Russia. In the Hermitage loaned the collection to Houghton for display following the original William Kent hanging plan, recently discovered at Houghton.
The nursery rhyme, " Who Killed Cock Robin? It lies at the mouth of the St. Clair River on Lake St. She was described as "a woman of exquisite beauty and accomplished manners". Prior to the death of his first wife, Walpole took on a mistress, Maria , daughter of Thomas Skerrett died ; an Irish merchant living in Dover Street, London. They had been living openly together in Richmond Park and Houghton Hall before His second wife died following a miscarriage on 4 June Walpole considered her "indispensable to his happiness", and her loss plunged him into a "deplorable and comfortless condition", which ended in a severe illness.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Robert Walpole, see Robert Walpole disambiguation. George I George II. Robert Walpole Mary Burwell. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Ancestors of Robert Walpole Edward Walpole — Sir Robert Crane, 1st Baronet Susan Crane — Susan Alington — Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford Sir Jeffrey Burwell — Mary Burwell — Elizabeth Derehaugh — Speck, Stability and Strife: England — p.
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British Political and Social History — , p. Retrieved 5 March That fortune enabled him to build Houghton. Retrieved 4 March Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 7 March The son of Sir Philip Meadows Snr. Maid of Honour — ; Meadows, Mary. Transferred from household of Princess Page Oxford University Press, Retrieved 13 April Rivington, Otridge and son. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 20 January History of Parliament Online". The Rise of Robert Walpole". There certainly is a majority in the house of commons, that are willing to do themselves and the kingdom justice; but they act so little in concert together [ The house were five hours in a committee [ Sir Robert Walpole - ".
Robert Walpole, Britain's first PM". Political Writer , pp. England under the Hanoverians. The Cambridge Modern History: Of the city in the time of King George II". Originally published by W Miller, London, — Pages — Retrieved 3 March In , a new silver mace, weighing ounces, gilt and finely exchased, was presented to the city by the right honourable Sir Rob. Walpole; on the cup part of it are Sir Robert's arms, and the arms of the city; it was first carried before the Mayor on the 29th of May. A Memoir of the Ministerial and Domestic History".
The King's Minister , Cresset Press, p. England, — , Harvard UP, pp. England, — , Oxford University Press, p. Smith, "Horace Walpole's Correspondence. Bolingbroke and His Circle: The Politics of Nostalgia in the Age of Walpole. Retrieved 15 August Walpole's system was depicted as a unique form of government, the Robinocracy or Robinarchy. Sir Robert Walpole History Today".
Links to related articles. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom. Chancellors of the Exchequer. Chamberlain Horne Baldwin N. Leaders of the House of Commons. Walpole Sandys Pelham Robinson H. Fox Grenville Conway North C. The Duke of Newcastle — The Lord Harrington — The Duke of Grafton — Sir Robert Walpole — The Viscount Townshend — The Earl of Scarbrough — Premier Grand Lodge of England. Robert Walpole Duke of Newcastle. Walpole was worried that while his fellow Whigs fought amongst themselves the Tories were gaining power, the end result of which would be England delivered to an unlimited, absolute monarchy, "that authority, that torrent which I should in vain extend a feeble arm to stem".
Early in old Horace Walpole of Wolterton died and was succeeded in the peerage by his son, who was then an MP for King's Lynn , thereby creating a vacancy. The electors of King's Lynn did not wish to be represented by a stranger and instead wanted someone with a connection to the Walpole family. The new Lord Walpole therefore wrote to his cousin requesting that he stand for the seat, saying his friends "were all unanimously of opinion that you were the only person who from your near affinity to my grandfather, whose name is still in the greatest veneration, and your own known personal abilities and qualifications, could stand in the gap on this occasion and prevent opposition and expence and perhaps disgrace to the family".
Walpole was a prominent opponent of the decision to execute Admiral Byng. Without a seat in Parliament, Walpole recognised his limitations as to political influence. He opposed the recent Catholic accommodative measures , writing to Mann in He wrote to William Mason , expounding his political philosophy:. I have for five and forty years acted upon the principles of the constitution as it was settled at the Revolution , the best form of government that I know of in the world, and which made us a free people, a rich people, and a victorious people, by diffusing liberty, protecting property and encouraging commerce; and by the combination of all, empowering us to resist the ambition of the House of Bourbon , and to place ourselves on a level with that formidable neighbour.
The narrow plan of royalty , which had so often preferred the aggrandizement of the Crown to the dignity of presiding over a great and puissant free kingdom, threw away one predominant source of our potency by aspiring to enslave America —and would now compensate for that blunder and its consequence by assuming a despotic tone at home. It has found a tool in the light and juvenile son of the great minister who carried our glory to its highest pitch—but it shall never have the insignificant approbation of an old and worn out son of another minister, who though less brilliant, maintained this country in the enjoyment of the twenty happiest years that England ever enjoyed.
It paints her exactly as she appeared to me the first time I saw her when Dauphiness. Indeed, Madam, I write unwillingly; there is not a word left in my Dictionary that can express what I feel. It remained for the enlightened eighteenth century to baffle language and invent horrors that can be found in no vocabulary. What tongue could be prepared to paint a Nation that should avow Atheism, profess Assassination, and practice Massacres on Massacres for four years together: These Monsters talk of settling a Constitution—it may be a brief one, and couched in one Law, "Thou shalt reverse every Precept of Morality and Justice, and do all the Wrong thou canst to all Mankind".
He was not impressed with Thomas Paine 's reply to Burke, Rights of Man , writing that it was "so coarse, that you would think he means to degrade the language as much as the government". His father was created Earl of Orford in Horace's elder brother, the 2nd Earl of Orford c. When the 3rd Earl died unmarried, Horace Walpole became the 4th Earl of Orford, and the title died with him in The massive amount of correspondence he left behind had been published in many volumes, starting in Likewise, a large collection of his works, including historical writings, was published immediately after his death.
Strawberry Hill had its own printing press , the Strawberry Hill Press , which supported Horace Walpole's intensive literary activity. In , not using his own press, he anonymously published his Gothic novel , The Castle of Otranto , claiming on its title page that it was a translation "from the Original Italian of Onuphirio Muralto". The second edition's preface, according to James Watt, "has often been regarded as a manifesto for the modern Gothic romance, stating that his work, now subtitled 'A Gothic Story', sought to restore the qualities of imagination and invention to contemporary fiction".
The novel opens with the son of Manfred the Prince of Otranto being crushed under a massive helmet that appears as a result of supernatural causes. However, that moment, along with the rest of the unfolding plot, includes a mixture of both ridiculous and sublime supernatural elements.
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The plot finally reveals how Manfred's family is tainted in a way that served as a model for successive Gothic plots. His memoirs of the Georgian social and political scene, though heavily biased, are a useful primary source for historians. Smith, noting that Walpole never did any work for his well-paid government sinecures, turns to the letters and argues that:. Walpole's numerous letters are often used as a historical resource. In one, dating from 28 January , he coined the word serendipity which he said was derived from a "silly fairy tale" he had read, The Three Princes of Serendip.
The original, fuller version appeared in a letter to Sir Horace Mann on 31 December In this he has been followed by other writers, such as Josephine Tey and Valerie Anand. This work, according to Emile Legouis, shows that Walpole was "capable of critical initiative".
The Walpole Society was formed in to promote the study of the history of British art.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Horatio Walpole, see Horatio Walpole. Serving with Sir John Turner, 3rd Baronet. Serving with Thomas Howard. Serving with Thomas Copleston — Edward Bacon — Walpole, Horatio, fourth earl of Orford — Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press online edn. Retrieved 8 August The creepy tale that launched gothic fiction". Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 28 January A Cambridge Alumni Database. New Interdisciplinary Essays Manchester: Manchester University Press, , pp.
The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity:
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