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Smith writes that the music for the shower scene is "probably the most famous and most imitated cue in film music," [99] but Hitchcock was originally opposed to having music in this scene. Herrmann reminded Hitchcock of his instructions not to score this scene, to which Hitchcock replied, "Improper suggestion, my boy, improper suggestion. The second one, over the score for Torn Curtain , resulted in the end of their professional collaboration. To honor the fiftieth anniversary of Psycho , in July , the San Francisco Symphony [] obtained a print of the film with the soundtrack removed, and projected it on a large screen in Davies Symphony Hall while the orchestra performed the score live.

This was previously mounted by the Seattle Symphony in October as well, performing at the Benaroya Hall for two consecutive evenings. Psycho is a prime example of the type of film that appeared in the United States during the s after the erosion of the Production Code. It was unprecedented in its depiction of sexuality and violence, right from the opening scene in which Sam and Marion are shown as lovers sharing the same bed, with Marion in a bra. Another controversial issue was the gender bending element. Perkins, who was allegedly a homosexual , [] and Hitchcock, who previously made the LGBT film Rope , were both experienced in the film's transgressive subject matter.

The viewer is unaware of the gender dysphoria until, at the end of the movie, it is revealed that Bates is a crossdresser in the attempted murder of Lila. At the station, Sam asks why was Bates dressed that way. The police officer, ignorant of Bates' split personality, bluntly utters that Bates is a transvestite. The psychiatrist corrects him and says, "Not exactly".

He explains that Bates believes that he is his own mother when he dresses in her clothes. According to the book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho , the censors in charge of enforcing the Production Code wrangled with Hitchcock because some of them insisted they could see one of Leigh's breasts. Hitchcock held onto the print for several days, left it untouched, and resubmitted it for approval. Each of the censors reversed their positions: They passed the film after the director removed one shot that showed the buttocks of Leigh's stand-in.

Since they did not show up for the re-shoot, the opening stayed. Another cause of concern for the censors was that Marion was shown flushing a toilet, with its contents torn-up note paper fully visible. No flushing toilet had appeared in mainstream film and television in the United States at that time. Internationally, Hitchcock was forced to make minor changes to the film, mostly to the shower scene.

In Britain, the BBFC requested cuts to stabbing sounds and visible nude shots, and in New Zealand the shot of Norman washing blood from his hands was objected to. In Singapore, though the shower scene was left untouched, the murder of Arbogast, and a shot of Norman's mother's corpse were removed. The most controversial move was Hitchcock's "no late admission" policy for the film, which was unusual for the time.

It was not entirely original as Clouzot had done the same in France for Diabolique. However, after the first day, the owners enjoyed long lines of people waiting to see the film. Hitchcock did most of the promotion on his own, forbidding Leigh and Perkins to make the usual television, radio, and print interviews for fear of their revealing the plot.

The film's original trailer features a jovial Hitchcock taking the viewer on a tour of the set, and almost giving away plot details before stopping himself. It is "tracked" with Herrmann's Psycho theme, but also jovial music from Hitchcock's comedy The Trouble with Harry ; most of Hitchcock's dialogue is post-synchronized. The trailer was made after completion of the film, and since Janet Leigh was no longer available for filming, Hitchcock had Vera Miles don a blonde wig and scream loudly as he pulled the shower curtain back in the bathroom sequence of the preview.

Since the title, " Psycho ", instantly covers most of the screen, the switch went unnoticed by audiences for years.

However, a freeze-frame analysis clearly reveals that it is Miles and not Leigh in the shower during the trailer. Percy , was murdered. As her parents slept mere feet away, she was stabbed a dozen times with a double-edged knife. In light of the murder, CBS agreed to postpone the broadcast. As a result of the Apollo pad fire of January 27, , the network washed its hands of Psycho , []. Shortly afterward Paramount included the film in its first syndicated package of post movies, "Portfolio I". Following another successful theatrical reissue in , the film finally made its way to general television airing in one of Universal's syndicated programming packages for local stations in Psycho was aired for twenty years in this format, then leased to cable for two years before returning to syndication as part of the "List of a Lifetime" package.

Initial reviews of the film were thoroughly mixed. While the film did not conclude satisfactorily for the critic, he commended the cast's performances as "fair". Lejeune was so offended that she not only walked out before the end but permanently resigned her post as film critic for The Observer. Janet Leigh has never been better", "played out beautifully", and "first American movie since Touch of Evil to stand in the same creative rank as the great European films.

The public loved the film, with lines stretching outside of theaters as people had to wait for the next showing. This, along with box office numbers, led to a reconsideration of the film by critics, and it eventually received a very large amount of praise. In the United Kingdom, the film shattered attendance records at the London Plaza Cinema , but nearly all British critics gave it poor reviews, questioning Hitchcock's taste and judgment.

Reasons cited for this were the critics' late screenings, forcing them to rush their reviews, their dislike of the gimmicky promotion, and Hitchcock's expatriate status. TIME switched its opinion from "Hitchcock bears down too heavily in this one" to "superlative" and "masterly", and Bosley Crowther put it on his Top Ten list of The Catholic Legion of Decency gave the film a B rating, meaning "morally objectionable in part".

Psycho was criticized for making other filmmakers more willing to show gore; three years later, Blood Feast , considered to be the first " splatter film ", was released. Inspired by Psycho , Hammer Film Productions launched a series of mystery thrillers including The Nanny [] starring Bette Davis and William Castle 's Homicidal was followed by a slew of more than thirteen other splatter films.

On the review aggregator website RottenTomatoes. Because Psycho was filmed with tact, grace, and art, Hitchcock didn't just create modern horror, he validated it". In Psycho , Hitchcock subverts the romantic elements that are seen in most of his work. The film is instead ironic as it presents "clarity and fulfillment" of romance.

The past is central to the film; the main characters "struggle to understand and resolve destructive personal histories" and ultimately fail.

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The myth does not sustain with Marion, who dies hopelessly in her room at the Bates Motel. The room is wallpapered with floral print like Persephone's flowers, but they are only "reflected in mirrors, as images of images—twice removed from reality". In the scene of Marion's death, Brill describes the transition from the bathroom drain to Marion's lifeless eye, "Like the eye of the amorphous sea creature at the end of Fellini's La Dolce Vita , it marks the birth of death, an emblem of final hopelessness and corruption.

Marion is deprived of "the humble treasures of love, marriage, home and family", which Hitchcock considers elements of human happiness. There exists among Psycho ' s secondary characters a lack of "familial warmth and stability", which demonstrates the unlikelihood of domestic fantasies.

Psycho - Wikipedia

The film contains ironic jokes about domesticity, such as when Sam writes a letter to Marion, agreeing to marry her, only after the audience sees her buried in the swamp. Sam and Marion's sister Lila, in investigating Marion's disappearance, develop an "increasingly connubial" relationship, a development that Marion is denied.

He has "an infantile and divided personality" and lives in a mansion whose past occupies the present. Norman displays stuffed birds that are "frozen in time" and keeps childhood toys and stuffed animals in his room. He is hostile toward suggestions to move from the past, such as with Marion's suggestion to put his mother "someplace" and as a result kills Marion to preserve his past.

Brill explains, " 'Someplace' for Norman is where his delusions of love, home, and family are declared invalid and exposed. Light and darkness feature prominently in Psycho. The first shot after the intertitle is the sunny landscape of Phoenix before the camera enters a dark hotel room where Sam and Marion appear as bright figures.

Marion is almost immediately cast in darkness; she is preceded by her shadow as she reenters the office to steal money and as she enters her bedroom. When she flees Phoenix, darkness descends on her drive. The following sunny morning is punctured by a watchful police officer with black sunglasses, and she finally arrives at the Bates Motel in near darkness. Examples of brightness include the opening window shades in Sam's and Marion's hotel room, vehicle headlights at night, the neon sign at the Bates Motel, "the glaring white" of the bathroom tiles where Marion dies, and the fruit cellar's exposed light bulb shining on the corpse of Norman's mother.

Such bright lights typically characterize danger and violence in Hitchcock's films. The film often features shadows, mirrors, windows, and, less so, water. The shadows are present from the very first scene where the blinds make bars on Marion and Sam as they peer out of the window. The stuffed birds' shadows loom over Marion as she eats, and Norman's mother is seen in only shadows until the very end. More subtly, backlighting turns the rakes in the hardware store into talons above Lila's head.

Mirrors reflect Marion as she packs, her eyes as she checks the rear-view mirror, her face in the policeman's sunglasses, and her hands as she counts out the money in the car dealership's bathroom. A motel window serves as a mirror by reflecting Marion and Norman together. Hitchcock shoots through Marion's windshield and the telephone booth, when Arbogast phones Sam and Lila. The heavy downpour can be seen as a foreshadowing of the shower, and its cessation can be seen as a symbol of Marion making up her mind to return to Phoenix. There are a number of references to birds.

Marion's last name is Crane and she is from Phoenix. Norman comments that Marion eats like a bird. The motel room has pictures of birds on the wall. Brigitte Peucker also suggests that Norman's hobby of stuffing birds literalizes the British slang expression for sex, "stuffing birds", bird being a British slang for a desirable woman.

Psycho has been called "the first psychoanalytical thriller. In , the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Leigh asserted, "no other murder mystery in the history of the movies has inspired such merchandising. In , it was adapted scene-for-scene into three comic books by the Innovative Corporation. Psycho has appeared on a number of lists by websites, television channels, and magazines. The shower scene was featured as number four on the list of Bravo Network's Scariest Movie Moments, [] whilst the finale was ranked number four on Premiere ' s similar list.

In , the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the twelfth best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership. American Film Institute has included Psycho in these lists:. Psycho has become one of the most recognizable films in cinema history, and is arguably Hitchcock's best known film. This played on his reader's expectations of traditional plots, leaving them uncertain and anxious. Hitchcock recognized the effect this approach could have on audiences, and utilized it in his adaptation, killing off Leigh's character at the end of the first act.

This daring plot device, coupled with the fact that the character was played by the biggest box-office name in the film, was a shocking turn of events in The most original and influential moment in the film is the shower scene, which became iconic in pop culture because it is often regarded as one of the most terrifying scenes ever filmed. Part of its effectiveness was due to the use of startling editing techniques borrowed from the Soviet montage filmmakers, [] [] and to the iconic screeching violins in Bernard Herrmann 's musical score.

The iconic shower scene is frequently spoofed, given homage to and referenced in popular culture, complete with the violin screeching sound effects see Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , among many others. Psycho is now considered to be the first film in the slasher film genre, [] [] and has been referenced in films numerous times; examples include the musical horror film Phantom of the Paradise , horror film Halloween which starred Jamie Lee Curtis , Janet Leigh's daughter; Donald Pleasence 's character was named "Sam Loomis" , [] the Mel Brooks tribute to many of Hitchcock's thrillers, High Anxiety , the Fade to Black , the Dressed to Kill and Wes Craven 's horror satire Scream.

Philippe , was released on October 13, The success of the film jump-started Perkins' career, but he soon began to suffer from typecasting. One letter was so "grotesque" that she passed it to the FBI. Two agents visited Leigh and told her the culprits had been located and that she should notify the FBI if she received any more letters of that type. Three sequels were produced: The Beginning , the last being a part-prequel television movie written by the original screenplay author, Joseph Stefano.

Anthony Perkins returned to his role of Norman Bates in all three sequels, and also directed the third film. Psycho has been rated and re-rated several times over the years by the MPAA. Later, when the MPAA switched to a voluntary letter ratings system in , Psycho was one of a number of high-profile motion pictures to be retro-rated with an "M" Mature Audiences. This THX-certified Widescreen 1. A version with alternate footage of Norman cleaning up after the murder and additional footage of Marion undressing and Arbogast's death has been shown on German TV and released on VHS in Germany.

Universal has never officially commented on this version. Laurent Bouzereau produced a documentary looking at the film's production and reception for the initial DVD release. Universal released a 50th anniversary edition on Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on August 9, , [] with Australia following with the same edition featuring a different cover being made available on September 1, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the film. For the sequels, see Psycho franchise. For the remake, see Psycho film. Film in the United States portal Horror fiction portal. Archived from the original on Retrieved December 30, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved April 17, Retrieved January 26, Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved April 24, Bright Lights Film Journal.

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Retrieved 25 June Archived from the original on January 12, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved November 20, Retrieved December 1, Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved 10 March Hitchcock's Shower Scene ' ". University of California Press. Retrieved on November 21, Retrieved May 22, Retrieved November 23, Archived from the original on February 26, The Life of Anthony Perkins. Momism and Homophobia in Postwar American Culture.

Retrieved June 14, Archived from the original on November 9, Gus Van Sant's 'Psycho' goes right down the drain". Retrieved 5 October The New York Times , June 1, Retrieved May 31, Retrieved September 6, Retrieved January 7, The Making of a Reputation. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved April 2, Retrieved March 10, Art And the Real in Film. The Pervert's Guide to Cinema documentary. Archived from the original on October 30, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on December 16, Retrieved December 2, Daniel Nash, and the hospital in Glasgow where he works.

Douglas Henshall starred as Dr. However, the series was heavily criticised by Ofcom , who upheld 28 complaints made viewers, and stated that following an investigation, the series "reinforced stereotypes and prejudice towards people involved in mental health".

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Ofcom also ruled that "a sexual relationship between a doctor and a patient was trivialised and gave the wrong signal about the seriousness of such a breach of trust". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from " https: Use dmy dates from February Use British English from February Pages using infobox television with editor parameter. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 13 November , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Psychiatrist Danny Nash clashes with colleague Kate Millar over the best treatment of a paranoid man. When the hospital is forced to discharge this patient, the result is near-disaster. Nash challenges Kate to name one thing she is passionate about. Tension erupts between staff over a decision to give an elderly patient electro convulsive therapy. Nash is mistaken when he believes that a suicidal man can be rescued by football.

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