Seemingly isolated events will occur in the same way over and over again because they are governed by the same laws. Water will flow downhill and sunlight will create warmth because of principles that apply broadly. In the human realm, behavior that accords with norms and laws counts as generality for similar reasons. Science deals mostly with generalities because it seeks to predict reality using reduction and equivalence.
Repetition, for Deleuze, can only describe a unique series of things or events. The Borges story in which Pierre Menard reproduces the exact text of Don Quixote is a quintessential repetition: Art is often a source of repetition because no artistic use of an element is ever truly equivalent to other uses.
Pop Art pushes this quality to a certain limit by bringing production near the level of capitalism , while Net Art does away with replication altogether in favor of identification. For humans, repetition is inherently transgressive. Coldness and Cruelty , Deleuze identifies humor and irony as lines of escape from the generalities of society. Humor and irony are in league with repetition because they create distance from laws and norms even while re-enacting them. Deleuze describes repetition as a shared value of an otherwise rather disparate trio: He also connects the idea to Freud's death drive.
He goes on to define repetition as "difference without a concept" Repetition is thus reliant on difference more deeply than it is opposed.
Revues.org > Hegel & Deleuze
Further, profound repetition will be characterized by profound difference. Deleuze paints a picture of philosophical history in which difference has long been subordinated to four pillars of reason: He argues that difference has been treated as a secondary characteristic which emerges when one compares pre-existing things; these things can then be said to have differences. This network of direct relations between identities roughly overlays a much more subtle and involuted network of real differences: The chapter contains a discussion of how various philosophers have treated the emergence of difference within Being.
This section uses Duns Scotus , Spinoza , and others to make the case that "there has only ever been one ontological proposition: A single voice raises the clamor of being" One then tries to understand the nature of differences that arise within Being. Deleuze describes how Hegel took contradiction—pure opposition—to be the principle underlying all difference and consequently to be the explanatory principle of all the world's texture.
He accuses this conception of having a theological and metaphysical slant. Deleuze proposes citing Leibniz that difference is better understood through the use of dx , the differential. Deleuze argues that difference should fundamentally be the object of affirmation and not negation.
As per Nietzsche, negation becomes secondary and epiphenomenal in relation to this primary force. The chapter describes three different levels of time within which repetition occurs. Deleuze takes as axiomatic the notion that there is no time but the present, which contains past and future. These layers describe different ways in which past and future can be inscribed in a present. As this inscription grows more complicated, the status of the present itself becomes more abstract.
- Abingdon New Testament Commentaries: Philippians & Philemon.
- Rural and Urban: Architecture Between Two Cultures.
- Dear Dante.
- Anti-Oedipus - Wikipedia!
- Reda Bensmaia | Brown University - viwacylu.tk!
- Are You an Author?.
Basic processes of the universe have a momentum that they carry into each present moment. A 'contraction' of reality refers to the collection of a diffuse ongoing force into the present.
Arrows of Desire: Dance and Power in Transnational Cinema
Prior thought and behavior, all substance performs contraction. Every organism, in its receptive and perceptual elements, but also in its viscera, is a sum of contractions, of retentions and expectations" Passive synthesis is exemplified by habit. Habit incarnates the past and gestures to the future in the present by transforming the weight of experience into an urgency.
Habit creates a multitude of "larval selves," each of which functions like a small ego with desires and satisfactions.
In Freudian discourse, this is the domain of bound excitations associated with the pleasure principle. Deleuze cites Hume and Bergson as relevant to his understanding of the passive synthesis. The second level of time is organized by the active force of memory , which introduces discontinuity into the passage of time by sustaining relationships between more distant events.
A discussion of destiny makes clear how memory transforms time and enacts a more profound form of repetition:.
Relative to the passive synthesis of habit, memory is virtual and vertical. It deals with events in their depth and structure rather than in their contiguity in time. Where passive syntheses created a field of 'me's,' active synthesis is performed by 'I. People suddenly had doubts about the presence of the work and the illusions of all presence Derrida. People disputed the fact that sensibility is the effect of a relation between perceiving subject and perceived work Deleuze.
People wonder if painting is not talking more about itself than about the beautiful, and the profundity of the world Foucault, in particular with regard to Manet. The second bypass, which this time stems from confrontation and prohibits associating this intellectual moment of the s with who knows what linguistic turn , obsessed by discourse and textuality. But it also carries at its core a twofold drift, or ambivalence. The first has to do with the crazy experiments stemming, at the height of the s, from some of the texts in question, experiments involving writing and paralogical argumentation, deliberately conceived to explore the boundaries of rationality, or reduce its hold on our understanding of art and the world.
To take just one example, which is far from being the best known, suffice it to list what Deleuze and Lyotard write about the concept of death , once they have extricated it from the metaphysical tradition and its humanistic gangue. In other respects, in various forms, a shift informs these major works during the s, a shift which is perhaps the actual signature of the times. For behind the embers of the intellectual cauldron and the wars for which it would be the melting-pot, these particular works in fact slip, more or less ostensibly, from the political to the personal to talk like the feminist activists of yore , from concept to affect, from the bellicose style to a more modalized tone, from ostentatious deconstructions to more subtle subjectivizations, and in all cases, from historical and disciplinary objects that they had set for themselves history of philosophy, re-reading of literary classics, archaeology of repressive institutions… to more un disciplinary floating objects, stemming directly from the artistic field—which the work of Deleuze, Derrida and Baudrillard would be concerned with in the s.
So headed in the same direction were those of an affective, perceptive and even subjective change of course of the work on concept during the s, the albeit distinct developments of these authors: In each instance, through an odd effect of reciprocal causality, one gets the impression that this kind of shift in style, approach and objects themselves introduces reconfigurations into the intellectual arena, just as much as it is itself the effect of an underground change of period and world.
In any event, it is from this particular shift, in the language and obsessions of a day and age, as in the turn taken by these theoretical works, that results, in a straight line, the legacy of these latter for the practice and theory of art. So it is not surprising that all of them suddenly became interested in this, at that precise moment at the turn of the s.
The Essay as Reflective Text more. Linguistics , Literary studies , and Language Studies. Cultural Studies and Literary studies. Cinemas Revue D Etudes Cinematographiques. Nana a souri et The Journal of Contemporary French Studies.
- Numéros en texte intégral.
- Bringer of Light.
- Machiavelli and Epicureanism: An Investigation into the Origins of Early Modern Political Thought.
Cultural Studies , Philosophy , Literary studies , and Parallax. Reflections on the Nature of the Violence in Algeria more. As an analyst like Lahouari Addi5 has shown very well, the specificity As an analyst like Lahouari Addi5 has shown very well, the specificity of politicoideological reality in Algeria is that one Cultural Studies , Philosophy , and Diacritics.
Related Deleuze philosophie et cinema (Lart en bref) (French Edition)
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved