Borghese was then tried and convicted of collaboration with the Nazi invaders but not of war crimes, by the Italian court. Angleton remained in Italy after the war, establishing connections with other secret intelligence services and playing a major role in the victory of the US-supported Christian Democratic Party , over the USSR-supported Italian Communist Party in the elections.
James Jesus Angleton
Returning to Washington, he was employed by the various successor organizations to the OSS, eventually becoming one of the founder-officers of the Central Intelligence Agency. Beginning in , Angleton was responsible for liaison with Israel 's Mossad and Shin Bet agencies, "the Israeli desk", crucial relationships that he managed for the remainder of his career. During the next five years, Angleton helped put in place the structure of the new Agency and participated, to some extent, in the " rollback " operations, associated with Frank Wisner in Albania , Poland and other countries, concerning all of which Angleton counseled caution and all of which failed.
The Angletons developed a varied social set in Washington, including professional acquaintances like the Philbys, poets, painters and journalists. Philby was expelled from Washington, suspected of having tipped them off to imminent exposure based on decoded Soviet communications from the Venona project. Dulles also assigned Angleton responsibility for coordination with allied intelligence services. In general, Angleton's career at CIA can be divided into three areas of responsibility: Under the heading of foreign intelligence, there was the Israeli desk , the Lovestone Empire and a variety of smaller operations.
Angleton's connections with the Israeli secret intelligence services were useful in obtaining from the Israeli Shin Bet a transcript of Nikita Khrushchev 's speech to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress denouncing Joseph Stalin. Finally, there were individual agents, especially in Italy, who reported to Angleton. Angleton's primary responsibilities as chief of the counterintelligence staff of the CIA have given rise to a considerable literature focused on his efforts to identify any Soviet or Eastern Bloc agents, working in American secret intelligence agencies.
As such agents have come to be called "moles", operations intended to find them have come to be called "Molehunts".
Three books dealing with Angleton take these matters as their central theme: Tom Mangold 's Cold Warrior: Martin's Wilderness of Mirrors: Tim Weiner 's Legacy of Ashes: Angleton thought that all secret intelligence agencies could be assumed to be penetrated by others, or, at least, that a reasonable chief of counterintelligence should assume so.
The combination of Angleton's close association with Philby and Philby's duplicity caused Angleton to double-check "potential problems". Philby was confirmed as a Soviet mole, when he eluded those sent to capture him and defected. Philby said that Angleton had been "a brilliant opponent" and a fascinating friend who seemed to be "catching on" before Philby's departure, thanks to CIA employee William King Harvey , a former Federal Bureau of Investigation agent, who had voiced his suspicions regarding Philby and others, who Angleton suspected were Soviet agents.
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Angleton's position in the CIA, his close relationship with Richard Helms , in particular, his experience and character, made him particularly influential. As in all bureaucracies, this influence brought him the enmity of those who had different views. The conflict between the "Angletonians" and the "Anti-Angletonians" has played out in the public sphere generally in publications about the mole hunts and, in particular, in regard to two Soviet defectors among many: Anatoliy Golitsyn and Yuri Nosenko.
Although Golitsyn was a questionable source, Angleton accepted significant information obtained from his debriefing by the CIA.
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It is claimed that Golitsyn, in asking to defect rather than to become a double agent , implied that the CIA had already been seriously compromised by the KGB. Golitsyn may have concluded that the CIA failed to debrief him correctly because his debriefing was misdirected by a mole in the Soviet Russia Division, limiting his debriefing to a review of photographs of Soviet embassy staff to identify KGB officers and refusing to discuss KGB strategy.
After Golitsyn raised this possibility with MI5 in a subsequent debriefing in Britain, MI5 raised the same concern with Angleton, who responded by requesting that DCI Richard Helms allow him to assume responsibility for Golitsyn and his further debriefing. In , Yuri Nosenko , a KGB officer working out of Geneva , Switzerland , insisted that he needed to defect to the US, as his role as a double agent had been discovered, prompting his recall to Moscow.
Nosenko was allowed to defect, although his credibility was immediately in question because the CIA was unable to verify a KGB recall order. Nosenko made two controversial claims: Regarding the first claim, Golitsyn had said from the beginning that the KGB would try to plant other defectors in an effort to discredit him.
Regarding the second, Nosenko told his debriefers that he had been personally responsible for handling Oswald's case and that the KGB had judged Oswald unfit for service due to his mental instability. Although other KGB sources corroborated Nosenko's story, he repeatedly failed lie detector tests. Judging the claim of not interrogating Oswald about the U-2 improbable, given Oswald's familiarity with the U-2 program, and faced with further challenges to Nosenko's credibility he also falsely claimed to be a lieutenant colonel, a higher rank than he in fact held , Angleton did not object when David Murphy, then head of the Soviet Russia Division, ordered Nosenko held in solitary confinement for approximately three-and-a-half years.
Contrary to some accounts, the detention of Nosenko was neither ordered by Angleton nor kept secret.
Nosenko never changed his story. The "Monster Plot" report about Nosenko's detainment and handling, written by John Hart, was feared by him and CIA lawyers to be libelous due to including "literally irrelevant" information and "dramatic rhetorical phrases. Hoover eventually curbed cooperation with the CIA, because Angleton refused to relent on this hypothesis. Angleton also came into increasing conflict with the rest of the CIA, particularly with the Directorate of Operations, over the efficacy of their intelligence-gathering efforts, which he questioned without explaining his broader views on KGB strategy and organization.
DCI Helms was not willing to tolerate the resulting paralysis. Golitsyn, who was after all a major in the KGB and had defected years before, was able to marshal few facts to provide concrete support for his far-reaching theoretical views of the KGB.
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James Jesus Angleton - Wikipedia
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