About the beginning of the 6th century a new kind of poetry made its appearance in the island of Lesbos. It was composed in the local Aeolic dialect by members of the turbulent and factious aristocracy. Alcaeus born about bc , absorbed in political feuds and in civil war, expressed with striking directness searing hate and blind exultation. With the same directness and stunning grace, Sappho , a contemporary who seems to have enjoyed a freedom unknown to the women of mainland Greece, told of her love for girls named in her poems.
The surviving works by their successor in personal lyric, Anacreon of Teos, suggest a more convivial amorousness. Choral lyric was associated with the Dorian parts of the Greek mainland and the settlements in Sicily and south Italy, whereas poetry for solo performance was a product of the Ionian coast and the Aegean Islands. Thus choral song came to be conventionally written in a Doric dialect. Choral lyric, which had lyre and aulos accompaniments, was highly complicated in structure. It did not use traditional lines or stanzas; but the metre was formed afresh for each poem and never used again in exactly the same form, though the metrical units from which the stanzas, or strophes, were built up were drawn from a common stock and the form of the strophe was usually related to the accompanying dance.
This elaborate art form was connected mainly with the cult of the gods or, as in the case of Pindar, the celebration of the victors in the great Hellenic games. The earliest poet of choral lyrics of whose work anything has survived was Alcman of Sparta about bc. Somewhat later Stesichorus worked in Sicily, and his lyric versions of the great myths marked an important stage in the development of these stories. Simonides of Ceos , in Ionia, was among the most versatile of Greek poets. He was famed for his pathos , but today he is best known for his elegiac epitaphs, especially those on the Greek soldiers who fell in the struggle against Persia.
The supreme poet of choral lyric was Pindar from Thebes in Boeotia born or possibly —died after bc , who is known mainly by his odes in honour of the victors at the great games held at Olympia, Delphi, the Isthmus of Corinth , and Nemea. The last of the lyric poets was Bacchylides flourished 5th century bc , whose works too were largely victory odes, characterized by an exquisite taste for mythical digression. Tragedy may have developed from the dithyramb , the choral cult song of the god Dionysus. Arion of Lesbos, who is said to have worked at Corinth in about , is credited with being the first to write narrative poetry in this medium.
Thespis 6th century bc , possibly combining with dithyrambs something of the Attic ritual of Dionysus of Eleutherae, is credited with having invented tragedy by introducing an actor who conversed with the chorus. These performances became a regular feature of the great festival of Dionysus at Athens about bc. Aeschylus introduced a second actor, though his drama was still centred in the chorus, to whom, rather than to each other, his actors directed themselves.
At the tragic contests at the Dionysia each of three competing poets produced three tragedies and a satyr play , or burlesque, in which there was a chorus of satyrs. Aeschylus , unlike later poets, often made of his three tragedies a dramatic whole, treating a single story, as in the Oresteia , the only complete trilogy that has survived. His main concern was not dramatic excitement and the portrayal of character but rather the presentation of human action in relation to the overriding purpose of the gods.
His successor was Sophocles , who abandoned for the most part the practice of writing in unified trilogies, reduced the importance of the chorus, and introduced a third actor.rheinbach-liest.de/components/60/wie-kann-man-ein-iphone-hacken.php
His work too was based on myth, but whereas Aeschylus tried to make more intelligible the working of the divine purpose in its effects on human life, Sophocles was readier to accept the gods as given and to reveal the values of life as it can be lived within the traditional framework of moral standards. Euripides , last of the three great tragic poets, belonged to a different world. When he came to manhood, traditional beliefs were scrutinized in the light of what was claimed by Sophist philosophers, not always unjustifiably, to be reason; and this was a test to which much of Greek religion was highly vulnerable.
The whole structure of society and its values was called into question. This movement of largely destructive criticism was clearly not uncongenial to Euripides. But as a dramatic poet he was bound to draw his material from myths, which, for him, had to a great extent lost their meaning. He adapted them to make room for contemporary problems, which were his real interest. Many of his plays suffer from a certain internal disharmony, yet his sensibilities and his moments of psychological insight bring him far closer than most Greek writers to modern taste.
There are studies, wonderfully sympathetic, of wholly unsympathetic actions in the Medea and Hippolytus; a vivid presentation of the beauty and horror of religious ecstasy in the Bacchants; in the Electra, a reduction to absurdity of the values of a myth that justifies matricide; in Helen and Iphigenia Among the Taurians, melodrama with a faint flavour of romance.
Like tragedy, comedy arose from a ritual in honour of Dionysus, in this case full of abuse and obscenity connected with averting evil and encouraging fertility.
The parabasis , the part of the play in which the chorus broke off the action and commented on topical events and characters, was probably a direct descendant of such revels. The dramatic element may have been derived from the secular Dorian comedy without chorus, said to have arisen at Megara, which was developed at Syracuse by Epicharmus c.
Akin to this kind of comedy seems to have been the mime , a short realistic sketch of scenes from everyday life. At Athens, comedy became an official part of the celebrations of Dionysus in bc. The first great comic poet was Cratinus. About 50 years later Aristophanes and Eupolis refined somewhat the wild robustness of the older poet. But even so, for boldness of fantasy, for merciless invective, for unabashed indecency, and for freedom of political criticism, there is nothing like the Old Comedy of Aristophanes , whose work alone has survived.
Cleon the politician, Socrates the philosopher, Euripides the poet were alike the victims of his masterly unfairness, the first in Knights ; the second in Clouds ; and the third in Women at the Thesmophoria and Frogs ; whereas in Birds the Athenian democracy itself was held up to a kindlier ridicule. Aristophanes survived the fall of Athens in , but the Old Comedy had no place in the revived democracy. The gradual change from Old to Middle Comedy took place in the early years of the 4th century.
Of Middle Comedy, no fully developed specimen has survived. It seems to have been distinguished by the disappearance of the chorus and of outspoken political criticism and by the growth of social satire and of parody; Antiphanes and Alexis were the two most distinguished writers. The complicated plots in some of their plays led to the development of the New Comedy at the end of the century, which is best represented by Menander.
One complete play, the Dyscolus , and appreciable fragments of others are extant on papyrus. New Comedy was derived in part from Euripidean tragedy; its characteristic plot was a translation into terms of city life of the story of the maiden—wronged by a god—who bears her child in secret, exposes it, and recognizes it years after by means of the trinkets she had put into its cradle.
The first great writer of history was Herodotus of Halicarnassus, who was also a geographer and anthropologist. The theme of his history, written in large part for Athenian readers, is the clash between Europe and Asia culminating in the Persian War. The account of the war itself, which occupies roughly the second half of the work, must have been composed by means of laborious inquiry from those whose memories were long enough to recall events that happened when Herodotus was a child or earlier.
The whole history , though in places badly put together, is magnificent in its compass and unified by the consciousness of an overriding power keeping the universe and humankind in check. As a member of the board of generals he acquired inside knowledge of the way policy is shaped.
After his failure to save Amphipolis in , he spent 20 years in exile, which he used as an opportunity for getting at the truth from both sides. The result was a history of the war narrowly military and political but of the most penetrating quality. Thucydides investigated the effect on individuals and nations both of psychological characteristics and of chance.
His findings were interpreted through the many speeches given to his characters. Just as Thucydides had linked his work to the point at which Herodotus had stopped, so Xenophon c. He carried his history down to His work was superficial by comparison with that of Thucydides, but he wrote with authority of military affairs and appears at his best in the Anabasis , an account of his participation in the enterprise of the Greek mercenary army, with which the Persian prince Cyrus tried to expel his brother from the throne, and of the adventurous march of the Greeks, after the murder of their leaders by the Persians, from near Babylon to the Black Sea coast.
Xenophon also wrote works in praise of Socrates, of whom his understanding was superficial. No other historical writing of the 4th century has survived except for a substantial papyrus fragment containing a record of events of the years — In few societies has the power of fluent and persuasive speech been more highly valued than it was in Greece, and even in Homer there are speeches that are pieces of finished rhetoric.
But it was the rise of democratic forms of government that provided a great incentive to study and instruction in the arts of persuasion, which were equally necessary for political debate in the assembly and for attack and defense in the law courts. The formal study of rhetoric seems to have originated in Syracuse c. Corax is reputed to have been the first to write a handbook on the art of rhetoric, dealing with such topics as arguments from probability and the parts into which speeches should be divided. Most of the Sophists had pretensions as teachers of the art of speaking, especially Protagoras , who postulated that the weaker of two arguments could by skill be made to prevail over the stronger, and Prodicus of Ceos.
In them ideas are expressed concerning bloodguilt and the duty of vengeance. Gorgias from Sicily, who visited Athens in , introduced an elaborate balance and symmetry emphasized by rhyme and assonance. Thrasymachus of Chalcedon made a more solid contribution to the evolution of a periodic and rhythmical style.
His speeches, some of them written for litigants of humble station, show dexterous adaptation to the character of the speaker, though the most interesting of all is his own attack on Eratosthenes , one of the Thirty Tyrants imposed on Athens by the Spartans in bc. The 12 extant speeches of Isaeus , who was active in the first half of the 4th century bc , throw light on aspects of Athenian law. Isocrates , who was influential in Athens for half a century before his death in , perfected a periodic prose style that, through the medium of Latin, was widely accepted as a pattern; and he helped give rhetoric its predominance in the educational system of the ancient world.
In his writings, which took the form of speeches but were more like pamphlets, Isocrates shows some insight into the political troubles besetting Greece, with its endless bickering between cities incapable of cooperation.
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The greatest of the orators was Demosthenes — , supreme in vehemence and power, though lacking in some of the more delicate shadings of rhetorical skill. Three more 4th-century- bc writers need only be mentioned: Prose as a medium of philosophy was written as early as the 6th century.
Philosophical prose was the greatest literary achievement of the 4th century. It was influenced by Socrates who himself wrote nothing and his characteristic method of teaching by question and answer, which led naturally to the dialogue. In the decade after he wrote a series of brilliant works, Phaedo, Phaedrus, Symposium, and the Republic.
His Socrates is the most carefully drawn character in Greek literature.
The Odyssey by Homer – the first step
They are without literary grace, and at times they approximate lecture notes. His works on literary subjects, the Rhetoric , and above all, the Poetics , had an immense effect on literary theory after the Renaissance. In the ancient world, Aristotelian doctrine was known mainly through the works of his successor Theophrastus c. The creative period of the Hellenistic Age was practically contained within the span of the 3rd century bc. To this period belonged three outstanding poets: Theocritus, Callimachus, and Apollonius of Rhodes.
He also dramatized scenes from middle-class life; and in his second idyll the character Simaetha, who tries by incantations to recover the love of the man who has deserted her, touches the fringe of tragedy.
He also used another Hellenistic form, the epyllion , a short scene of heroic narrative poetry in which heroic stature is often reduced by playful realism and delicate psychology. In his hands the hexameter attained a lyric purity and sweetness unrivaled elsewhere. He was the first of the nature poets, succeeded by Moschus and Bion. Callimachus flourished about was a scholar as well as a poet. His most famous work, of which substantial fragments survive, was the Aitia , an elegiac poem describing the origins of various rites and customs.
It was heavy with learning but diversified by passages of entertaining narrative. The praisers direct their verses and their music with such vehemence and volume that until they are placated with a gift or by the intervention of some recognized authority, no business can go forward. This can add to the fearsome quality of their words while at the same time making them free from the obligations which are binding on other members of the society. We find that this is the case with some freelance poets in the further western area of West Africa. Throughout this region they exploit their abilities and extract rewards for their songs from wealthy and powerful families.
In view of the wide currency of this word in both French and English, it is worth saying a little more about the particular poets to whom it refers. Though it was presumably originally a translation of the Fulani gaoulo wandering poet or praiser or Wolof gewel poet and musician , it is now popularly used as a term to refer to almost any kind of poet or musician throughout at least the French-speaking areas of West Africa.
But clearly not all poets throughout this wide area answer to the more precise description of the term: Among the various castes into which society was divided, those of the poets and musicians came near the bottom. They were thus set apart from those to whom they addressed themselves and not unexpectedly met with a somewhat ambiguous attitude among other members of society—at once feared, despised, and influential. Some of these Senegambian griots specialized in shouting praises and reciting genealogies and had some kind of attachment to the various freeborn lineages; others sang praises of chiefs and leading men at public functions and could gain great influence with local rulers.
Traditionally a Wolof gewel had the power to insult anyone and, as in other areas, could switch to outspoken abuse if no sufficient reward was forthcoming. Their membership of the special poetic caste gave them impunity, so that together with their low status they at the same time had freedom from the sanctions that deterred other members of society from open insult of their fellows.
Here too some legal attempts have been made to limit their power, and it is significant that as the old caste system breaks down, thus in a sense raising the low status of the poet, this brings with it a decrease in his previous power to mock with impunity. The poet can, indeed must, think about himself as well as his patron; he can more easily vary conventional styles and motifs than his official counterpart. There is no premium on verbal accuracy or even near accuracy as in the case of some of the politically sanctioned court poetry, and there is not the distinction between reciter and composer that was just discernible in some of the court poetry discussed.
The audiences, too, tend to be wider, and there is a corresponding lack of a highly specialized or esoteric style. The public is still chosen from among the wealthy and powerful, but depends more on entertainment and on communication and less on formal pomp. For instance, one of the characteristic results of the professional freelance poets azmaris in Ethiopia was that poets were found everywhere, from the courts to the poorer houses, to the roads, or to public gatherings, commenting on their audiences or on local events, a kind of gazette chantante in their reflection of contemporary public opinion.
Their persons were sacrosanct and they were received honourably everywhere. In the opinion of the Chadwicks it was this which to a large extent led to the uniformity of Ethiopian poetry. In parts of Senegambia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone, the cultural uniformities stretching over a wide area of differing societies and languages can be put down in part to the long history of wandering poets who could apparently travel unmolested even in wartime Chadwicks, vol.
Such poets give an international as well as a national currency to the conventions of their poetry in a way that formally appointed court poets or localized experts could never have done. But there are also many less specialized poets to consider. These practitioners are sometimes found coexisting with their more professional colleagues, but they also sometimes appear as the most skilled proponents of the poetic art in cultures which, as in many of the traditionally uncentralized societies of Africa, do not possess full-time literary specialists.
At these less professional levels women are often mentioned. These poets are often not equally expert in the whole field of oral art. Usually a poet becomes known for his exposition of a single genre of sung or spoken verse, one perhaps associated with a particular occasion when the poet-singer comes forward from the mass of his fellows to exhibit his art. Some poets hold a relatively specialized status, differing only in degree from that of the professionals discussed earlier.
It is also true, although to a lesser degree, of the Luo nyatiti lyre player who generally acts as an entertainer in this uncentralized society of East Africa. As we have some detailed evidence Anyumba about these particular singers, it is worth giving a fairly full description to illustrate the kind of part the poet may play in such a society.
Funerals are celebrated on a grand scale and one essential part is the songs of the nyatiti player.
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He needs no special invitation for he is always welcome once the noise and bustle of the actual burial have subsided. He takes up his stance, singing at the top of his voice to the accompaniment of his lyre and the rattling of his ankle-bells. He sweats profusely with the effort, and consumes vast quantities of beer. Before him lies a plate into which those who accost him can drop their pennies. He is frequently called on to sing about the dead person, and, in preparation for this, he has a tune ready from his normal repertoire which can be modified to suit the occasion.
Others, however, arise from more studied composition in preparation for the funeral. This is usually when the singer himself is deeply moved by the death or has some especially close link with the deceased. Here he creates a new song. He must consider and weigh up both the suitable melodic patterns and also the words and names to go with them.
The process takes time and concentration, but the tune itself sometimes comes to the singer at an inspired moment. After some trials on his lyre, he then, on the actual occasion, sings with so much intensity and meaning that large gifts are showered on him. Indeed the song may gain such favour that he is begged to sing it later by his fans—and, after the due deposit of a few coins on his plate, he agrees. He is called on to praise friends or relatives, to recount his personal experiences, to exalt kindness, hospitality, or courage, and to comment on current affairs.
His art is practised partly to fulfil social obligations and to share in ceremonies which are also open to others, but also partly for direct material reward. Some of his performances arise out of the ceremonial occasion itself, with his audience directly involved in the occasion; but others, particularly those by the most skilled singers, are specifically given at the request of admirers who patronize him and reward his performance.
Finally, there are some occasions and for some singers these may be in the majority when the song produced is uninspired and stale, in spite of cleverly introduced modifications; while on other occasions the song is the product, and recognized as such, of the truly creative imagination of the singer. But there are still many specific occasions when they can exhibit their poetic skills. One frequent context is at meetings of the specialized associations characteristic of many parts of West Africa. These are performed on festive occasions, at funerals of members of the group, and at other meetings of the association.
The poets are there in their capacity as hunters, but one aspect of their craft, for some members at least, is skill in poetic composition and performance. These very part-time poets, then, are patronized by fellow-hunters and also at times by the public at large, as when the Yoruba ijala poet is especially invited to perform as a general entertainer on non-hunting occasions. Similar connections between specialist association and a specific genre of poetry exist among the Akan military associations, cults of particular deities among the Yoruba and others, secret societies, local churches, and some of the more formally organized cooperative work groups.
In all these cases the primary context is that of the association, and the poet is fulfilling his social obligations as a member though he may acquire a material profit in addition ; special performances to wider audiences or for more direct reward seem to be secondary and in many cases not to occur at all. Occasions such as initiations, weddings, or funerals provide fertile stimuli for poetic exhibition.
Here again the range is wide—from occasions when those most intimately involved sing just as part of their general social obligations in the ceremony, to special appearances of famous artists or bands. Even within one society, different rituals may have different degrees of expertise considered appropriate to them. A good example of this can be seen in the contrast between the initiation ceremonies of boys and of girls among the Limba.
A number of singer-drummers must be present. The singers are merely those who are in any case directly involved in the occasion, with no special reward due to them for their songs. Other Limba occasions provide yet another contrast. In their large-scale memorial rituals the most famous singers in the whole chiefdom area or beyond are begged to come to display their specialist art; they usually have no direct relationship to the principals in the ceremony— or if they have this is irrelevant—but take time off from their everyday pursuits to attend as specialists in return for the very large gifts their hosts undertake to provide.
Thus Hausa weddings, elaborate and complex affairs, require the presence of specialist maroka teams.
Oral Literature in Africa
These are independent and unattached bands who gain their livelihood partly from their craft and partly from subsistence farming Smith They attend weddings largely for profit, and they are the principal beneficiaries of the costly gifts that are made publicly on these occasions.
A rather different type is provided by the Akan dirge singers. Every Akan woman is expected to have some competence in the dirge, and though some singers are considered more accomplished than others, nevertheless every woman mourner at a funeral is expected to sing—or run the risk of strong criticism, possibly even suspicion of complicity in the death Nketia Thus they perform as part of their general social responsibilities and their audiences hear and admire their performances as one aspect of the funeral rituals which they are attending, rather than as a specialist aesthetic occasion which demands direct recompense to the artist.
Yet that even this relatively low degree of specialization can result in elaborate literary compositions, valued alike for their aesthetic merits and their social functions, should be clear from the detailed account of these dirges given by Nketia summarized in Chapter 6. Sometimes these actually hinge on organized competitions by poets, as used to be the case in several areas of East Africa. In Tanganyika, for instance, two singers of the same type of song, each leading his own group of members, sometimes decide to compete on an agreed day. In the interval they teach their followers new songs of their own composition.
Then on the day the two groups sing in turn at a little distance from each other. The victor is the singer who draws the greatest number of spectators to his side. At social gatherings among the Ila and Tonga of Zambia, for instance, a woman who is skilled in the special type of solo termed impango stands up and sings from her own personal repertoire. If she has close friends or relatives present, they too stand up to praise her song and present her with small gifts like tobacco or a sixpence Jones Their purpose is social and recreational, but they make some economic profit from their performances Nketia b: There are also the times when every member of a society or every member who falls into a certain category is expected to have some competence in certain types of verse.
Sotho boys, for instance, were all required to demonstrate proficiency in praise poetry as part of their initiation ceremonies, and had to declaim the praises of their own achievements and expectations before the crowd gathered to welcome them after their seclusion although even there the common African practice of balancing soloist and chorus gives scope for a certain degree of expertise by the leader ; among some of the Zambian peoples a young man had to sing a song of his own composition on the occasion of his marriage Laydevant Not all contexts are as formal as this.
We hear of the Nuer youth leading his favourite ox round the kraal in the evenings, in pride and joy, leaping before it and singing its praises, or, again, of young Nuer or Dinka boys chanting their songs in the lonely pastures Evans-Pritchard In all these cases poetic facility has become no longer a specialist activity, but one which in some degree or other all individuals in the society are expected to have as a universal skill. But enough has been said to show that it is not only in societies in which there is courtly, aristocratic, or religious patronage, or marked cleavages of wealth or power, that the poet finds opportunity to exercise his skills.
There are many egalitarian societies too, often those with little specialism in any sphere of life, in which nevertheless poetry can flourish— like the Ibo, the Somali, the Nilotic peoples of the Sudan, and many others. It is true that it does seem to be in court poetry, and occasionally in religious poetry, that we find the highest degree of specialism, and the longest and, in a sense, most intellectual poems. Someone would like to have you for her child But you are my own.
Someone wished she had you to nurse you on a good mat; Someone wished you were hers: Someone wished she had you, but I have you Nketia b: It may be that many of them are not particularly good or original poets even in terms of their own culture, and make more of a contribution to the performance than to the composition. But the fact remains that this too is an essential part of the poetic skill of the oral practitioner, and that poems cannot reach their public without the interposition of such artists.
In some of the most highly specialized or technically complex poetry—Rwanda dynastic poetry, Yoruba Ifa literature, or Somali gabay —reciters may be distinguished from creative poets: Thus even if in fact the reciter does modify a poem, this aspect is played down and the poem is supposed to be merely transmitted by reciters in the traditional form. Thus certain poems may circulate in their own right, sometimes even with named authors as in Ruanda or Somaliland.
Here the song is merely the background to some other activity, and repetition of known verses is more noticeable than poetic originality. Songs of this kind can become popular and spread over a wide area with incredible speed, to be supplanted after a time by new ones. Yet, as will appear in later chapters, even in these cases there can be modification and additions either in the musical aspects or in the words.
Even if, for instance, the chorus remains more or less the same so that a superficial observer may be pardoned for considering it just another performance of the same old song, the soloist who leads the song and supplies the verses may in fact be making his own original musical and verbal contribution.
Oral Literature in Africa - 4. Poetry and Patronage - Open Book Publishers
For indigenous African verse the writing is most often in Arabic script, and we find—as in Swahili, Hausa, or Fulani—a tradition both of the circulation of definitive versions of poems and of remembering the original authors by name. Such poems may also circulate by oral means, for actual literacy is often confined to the few, but they differ from fully oral compositions in that the roles of composer and reciter can be clearly distinguished. XV were Christian beyond doubt, and it is equally sure that Beowulf was composed in a Christianised England since conversion took place in the sixth and seventh centuries.
The poem is set in pagan times, and none of the characters is demonstrably Christian. In fact, when we are told what anyone in the poem believes, we learn that they are pagans. Beowulf's own beliefs are not expressed explicitly. He offers eloquent prayers to a higher power, addressing himself to the "Father Almighty" or the "Wielder of All. Or, did the poem's author intend to see Beowulf as a Christian Ur-hero, symbolically refulgent with Christian virtues?
The location of the composition of the poem is also intensely disputed. Moorman , the first professor of English Language at University of Leeds , claimed that Beowulf was composed in Yorkshire,  but E. Talbot Donaldson claims that it was probably composed more than twelve hundred years ago, during the first half of the eighth century, and that the writer was a native of what was then called West Mercia, located in the Western Midlands of England.
However, the late tenth-century manuscript "which alone preserves the poem" originated in the kingdom of the West Saxons — as it is more commonly known. Greenfield has suggested that references to the human body throughout Beowulf emphasise the relative position of thanes to their lord. He argues that the term "shoulder-companion" could refer to both a physical arm as well as a thane Aeschere who was very valuable to his lord Hrothgar. With Aeschere's death, Hrothgar turns to Beowulf as his new "arm. Daniel Podgorski has argued that the work is best understood as an examination of inter-generational vengeance-based conflict, or feuding.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the epic story.
For the character, see Beowulf hero. For other uses, see Beowulf disambiguation. Old English epic story. List of translations and artistic depictions of Beowulf. Kentish Mercian Northumbrian West Saxon. Old English sources hinges on the hypothesis that Genesis A predates Beowulf. He suggested the Irish Feast of Bricriu which is not a folktale as a source for Beowulf —a theory that was soon denied by Oscar Olson.
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Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 13 February University of Nebraska Press, pp. Indiana University Press, pp. Heaney, Seamus , Beowulf: A New Verse Translation , W. Beowulf Told to the Children of the English Race, — Beowulf and the English Literary Tradition" , Ragazine. Nicholson, Lewis E, ed. North, Richard , "The King's Soul: Danish Mythology in Beowulf", Origins of Beowulf: From Vergil to Wiglaf , Oxford: DS Brewer ——— b , Pride and Prodigies: Studies in the Monsters of the Beowulf-Manuscript , Toronto: Beck , and II. Sigfrid in German Puhvel, Martin Beowulf and the Celtic Tradition.
Cambridge University Press, p. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel . The Monsters and the Critics and other essays. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel Trask, Richard M , "Preface to the Poems: Epic Companions", Beowulf and Judith: Two Heroes , Lanham, MD: University Press of America, pp. A Translation and Commentary " Beowulf: Grendel Eaters of the Dead. Prince of the Geats Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands. Anglo-Saxon paganism and mythology.
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