Mississippi in the American Civil War
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Love, Sex, and Marriage in the Civil War. Union Army general Ulysses S. Grant dispatched Sherman to meet the Confederate forces. Upon learning that Vicksburg had already surrendered, the Confederates retreated back into Jackson, thus beginning the Siege of Jackson , which lasted for approximately one week before the town fell. The city surrendered to Flag-Officer David G. Farragut after the fall of New Orleans in May Union soldiers sent by Ulysses S.
Grant from Vicksburg occupied Natchez in The local commander, General Thomas Ransom, established headquarters at a home called Rosalie. Ellen Shields's memoir reveals a Confederate woman's reactions to Union occupation of the city. Shields was a member of the local elite and her memoir points to the upheaval of Confederate society during the war. According to historian Joyce Broussard, Shields's memoir indicates that Confederate men, absent because of the war, were seen to have failed in their homes and in the wider community, forcing the women to use their class-based femininity and their sexuality to deal with the Union Army.
The planters who each owned or more slaves in the Natchez region in were not enthusiastic Confederates.
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The support these slaveholders had for the Confederacy was problematic because they were fairly recent arrivals to the Confederacy, opposed secession, and held social and economic ties to the Union. These elite planters also lacked a strong emotional attachment to the idea of a Southern nation; however, when the war started, many of their sons and nephews joined the Confederate army. He did support the Confederacy and led a brigade, but was sharply criticized for failing to defend the Gulf Coast. When the Union Army came he moved to Georgia for the duration. He returned in but never recouped his fortune; He went bankrupt and in he gave up and moved to New York City.
A few residents showed their defiance of Union authorities. In , the Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Natchez , William Henry Elder , refused to obey a Union order to compel his parishioners to pray for the U. In response, Union forces arrested Elder, convicted him, and jailed him briefly.
The memory of the war remains important for the city, as white Natchez became much more pro-Confederate after the war. The Lost Cause myth arose as a means for coming to terms with the Confederacy's defeat. It quickly became a definitive ideology, strengthened by its celebratory activities, speeches, clubs, and statues. The major organizations dedicated to maintaining the tradition were the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. At Natchez, although the local newspapers and veterans played a role in the maintenance of the Lost Cause, elite women particularly were important, especially in establishing memorials such as the Civil War Monument dedicated on Memorial Day The Lost Cause enabled women noncombatants to lay a claim to the central event in their redefinition of Southern history.
Vicksburg was the site of the Battle of Vicksburg , a decisive victory as the Union forces gained control of the entire Mississippi River and cut the western states off. The battle consisted of a long siege, which was necessary because the town was on high ground, well fortified, and difficult to attack directly.
The hardships of the civilians were extreme during the siege, with heavy shelling and starvation all around. Greenville was a pivotal village for Grant's northern operations in Mississippi during the Vicksburg campaign. The area of the Delta surrounding Greenville was considered the "breadbasket" for providing Vicksburg's military with corn, hogs, beef, mules and horses. The design of this expedition was to reconnoiter Deer Creek as a possible route to Vicksburg and to create havoc and cause damage to confederate soldiers, guerrillas, and loyal Confederate landowners.
Highly successful, Steele's men seized almost head of livestock horses, mules, and cattle and burned , bushels of corn during their foray. It was at this time that General Ulysses S. Grant determined that if any of the slaves chose to do so, they could cross the Union lines and become U.
The first black regiments were formed during the Greenville expedition, and by the end of the expedition nearly ex-slaves were learning the "school of the soldier. More importantly, it had serious consequences for the people and soldiers of Vicksburg who were now deprived of a most important source of supplies, food, and animals.
Navy ordered ashore 67 marines and 30 sailors, landing near Chicot Island. Their orders were to "put to the torch" all homes and buildings of those citizens guilty of aiding and abetting Confederate forces.
By the end of the day of May 9, the large and imposing mansions, barns, stables, cotton gins, overseer dwellings and slave quarters of the Blanton and Roach plantations were in ruins. Additional damage was done to Argyle Landing and Chicot Island and other houses, barns and outbuildings. The destruction of Greenville was completed on May 6 when a number of Union infantrymen slipped ashore from their boats and burned every building in the village but two a house and a church.
Columbus was an important hospital town early in the war. Columbus also had an arsenal that produced gunpowder as well as cannons and handguns.
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Columbus was targeted by the Union on at least two different occasions, but Union commanders failed to attack the town, due to the activities of Nathan Bedford Forrest and his men. Many of the casualties from the Battle of Shiloh were brought there, and thousands were buried in the town's Friendship Cemetery.
Canton was an important rail and logistics center. Many wounded soldiers were treated in or transported through the city, and, as a consequence, it too has a large Confederate cemetery. Meridian 's strategic position at a major railroad junction made it the home of a Confederate arsenal, military hospital, and prisoner-of-war stockade, as well as the headquarters for a number of state offices. The disastrous Chunky Creek Train Wreck of happened 30 miles from Meridian, when the train was en route to the Vicksburg battle.
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After the Vicksburg campaign, Sherman's Union forces turned eastward. In February , his army reached Meridian, where they destroyed the railroads and burned much of the area to the ground. After completing this task, Sherman is reputed to have said, "Meridian no longer exists. The shipyard was destroyed by Union forces in Then, Yazoo City fell back into Confederate hands.
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Union forces retook the city the following year and burned most of the buildings in the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of Mississippi Nickname s: Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Retrieved October 21, Retrieved September 12, All things historical, from the profound to the ridiculous. Houses, fences, farm property, etc. The well disposed people must be made to feel that the troops are for their protection rather than for their inconvenience.
In the population of Holly Springs had been 5,; by the population had declined to 2, The survivors found themselves without money, cotton, horses, livestock or provisions.
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