Predators and Parasitoids (Advances in Biopesticide Research)

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Pesticides can have indirect effects by decreasing plants and insects which are food sources to other beneficial insects. They can suppress plants which are used to provide nectar, pollen and honeydew to natural enemies and also eliminate the non-pests species that serve as alternative source of food for natural enemies and which provide favourable conditions for their survival. The elimination of the hosts or prey for instance by pesticidal effects will lead to the natural enemies lack food resources and therefore these natural enemies will have to leave in search of alternative prey or host.

Thus, there will be no natural enemies to suppress the activities of pests [24].

Dosage of imidacloprid above 20 ppb has been reported by [25] to reduce the ability of bumble bees and honey bees to step into food sources. There is limited knowledge on the types of synthetic pesticides that reduce the food resources for beneficial insects and therefore exploring these pesticides would help in conserving predators, parasitoids and pollinators.

Some inorganic insecticides present on foliage may bring physical irritation to predators and parasitoids especially the small ones. Insecticides may cause repellency for feeding and oviposition. The insects will rarely oviposit on plants sprayed by pesticides [2]. Insecticides may cause physiological changes by affecting the nervous and hormonal balance of beneficial insects. The natural enemies may reduce the probability of finding their hosts for oviposition because of the indirect disturbance caused by the repellent effect of insecticides [26].

The insecticide fenoxycarb was reported to cause the pro- longed time of development of the predator Chysoperla rufilabris Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in all the stages as reported by [29]. Scelionidae which had been used in the control of Eurygaster integriceps populations due to intensive use of insecticides. Effects of the insecticides Fenitrothion and deltamethrin on adults and preimaginal stages of egg parasitoid Trissolcus grandis have been also reported by [31].

The insecticides significantly reduced the emergence rates by In the study by [32] on the effects of dimethoate, spinosad, imidacloprid and pirimicarb on the survival and longevity of Aphidius ervi, an important parasitoid of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , it was unveiled that after 24 hours, dimethoate had caused total mortality of all Aphidius ervi adults subjected to the treatment, followed by pirimicarb and the last one being spinosad Table 1. The developmental impairment caused by synthetic pesticides have great impacts on biological control of agricultural pests.

There is therefore a need of studying the dynamics of the predatory and parasitic activities affected by these developmental anomalies. Further research on the reduced foraging ability of both the pollinators and natural enemies of pests caused by synthetic pesticides is the way forward towards preserving the bees hence, promoting biological control and pollination in agriculture. It also reduced the rate of fecundity and size of this insect. When submitted to low doses of the insecticide deltamethrin, the males of Thrichogramma brassicae did not respond to the signals of females, while treated females reduced the capacity of attracting untreated males [35].

Wettable sulfur which is effective against mites and thrips and hydrated lime which is effective against leafhoppers can cause infertility which may.

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Infertility in adults may also influence the dynamics of populations as matting does not generate fertile eggs [36]. When parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum was subjected to insecticide organophosphate chlorpyrifos, it reduced the number of females [22]. Due to chemical consumption, females may suffer from ovary deformations and this has impacts on sexual ratios [37]. The insecticide fenoxycarb has been reported to cause the prolonged time of development of the predator Chysoperla rufilabris in all the stages [29].

Investigations of different synthetic pesticides that cause reproductive impairment to predators, parasitoids and pollinators could enhance the host-finding and pollination efficiency. Also more knowledge on non-lethal effects of the synthetic pesticides on natural enemies, parasitoids and pollinators is important in increasing their efficiency to control pests and pollinating the crops in agricultural fields. Several botanical pesticides have caused mortality to beneficial insects due to their toxicity.

These include among others citronella, eucalyptus, garlic, pyrethrum and neem products [39]. At the LC 50 , pyrethrum was highly toxic to V. When larvae of Ephestia kuehniella as parasitoid hosts were treated at LC 50 and LC 25 values of Azadirachtin, very few adult parasitoids emerged which indicated a strong detrimental effect on the parasitoid.

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  • Scro- phulariaceae , and derivatives from Azadirachta indica and pyrethrum products on the behaviour and mortality of whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the parasitoid Encarsia formosa, at lower concentrations, pyrethrum caused mortality to both the adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and its parasite Encarsia formosa. Moreover, [15] found that the mortality of lady beetles in bean fields when treated with Neem oil fresh 2. Rotenone and neem reduced the numbers of adult anthocorid Orius laevigatus, a predator of flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis [43].

    The higher mortality rates were also observed in worker larvae exposed to dietary andiroba oil, garlic extract and neem oil, but rotenone, citronella oil and eucalyptus oil had no significant effects on mortality rates of the worker larvae. When adult workers were raised from the larvae fed on a diet exposed to andiroba oil, garlic extract, and neem oil the survival rate decreased. During pupation and adult emergence, the mortality of larvae bee was induced by andiroba oil and garlic extracts [45]. Also, the hatching rates of Coccinella septempunctata and Chrysoperla carnea were highly affected.

    Despite their effectiveness in pest control, some botanical pesticides are lethal to beneficial insects. Thus, detailed knowledge of the lethal synthetic pesticides on beneficial insects is essential for sustainable control of insect pests and pollination activities for improved and sustainable agricultural production. Non lethal effects of botanical pesticides may inhibit the ability of natural enemies to establish populations, suppress the capacity of natural enemies to utilize prey, reduce prey availability, affect parasitism or con- sumption rates; decrease reproduction, inhibit ability of natural enemies to recognize prey; influence the sex ratio females: Azadirachtin and pyrethrum have been reported by [40] to seriously affect the development and behaviour of parasitoid Venturia canescens Hymenoptera: Also when subjected to the whitefly nymphs treated with Pyrethrum, the adult E.

    The naphthoquinones also discouraged the parasitoids from ovipositing.

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    The Delphastus pusillus, a predatory ladybird beetle avoided the eggs of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci for one day when subjected to the treatment of neem Margosan-O. The feeding was resumed the next day [49]. Sub lethal effects of azadirachtin on the development of egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus oculator. Sub lethal effects of pyrethrum on the development of egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus oculator. Trialeurodes vaporariorum were subjected to the treatments of naphthoquinones and pyrethrum extracts, the botanical insecticides discouraged the adult E.

    Also the sublethal doses of neonicotinyl insecticide starting around 10 ppb caused bees to lose navigation and foraging skills. It is therefore of great importance to investigate more botanical pesticides that cause stabbing and feeding repellency on beneficial insects and the ways beneficial arthropods are affected from the botanicals. This will allow for optimized and sustainable use of botanical pesticides while avoiding or minimizing side effects on beneficial insects.

    Chrysopidae after being exposed to sublethal doses of botanical insecticides with azadirachtin. The study on the effects of azadirachtin and pyrethrum on the development of the parasitoid Venturia canescens Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae by [40] showed that sublethal doses of azadirachtin prolonged the development time of V. The emergence rates of V.

    The adult longevity and dry mass were also significantly reduced compared with the control. Botanical and synthetic pesticides generate acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects on beneficial insects responsible for natural pest control and pollination. The detrimental effects caused by synthetic pesticides have long been reported and several strategies are in place including biological pest control.

    The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    The negative effects posed by botanicals however, are of more concern as this might limit the effectiveness of biological pest control strategies. Botanicals are often categorized as safe and environmentally friendly but their use for insect pests control should always be done with caution. Evaluation of the potential risks of the pesticides to non-target organisms is crucial in optimizing ecosystem services e. More research is therefore needed to determine the side effects of both botanical and synthetic pesticides on predators, parasitoids and pollinators.

    Most of the detrimental effects especially of the botanicals are based on dosage which suggests for more research on the right dosage. It is also important that beneficial insects in a particular field environment are studied before investing on a particular pesticide use to allow for precautions as to which specific chemical and dosage to use. Crop Protection, 26, Annual Review of Entomology, 52, Coccinellidae and Mallada signatus Schneider Neuroptera: Biological Control, 22, Conservation Biology, 27, An Old Story Writ Large. Climate Change and Human Health: World Health Organization, Geneva.

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    Journal of Economic Entomology, 91, University of Minnesota Extension, Minneapolis. The quality of botanical extracts is also dependednt on the method of extraction used []. During formulation, it is sometimes challenging to get the right proportions of the active and inert ingredients needed. There are also no standard preparation methods and guidelines for efficacy testing especially under field conditions []. While the in vitro tests produce excellent results, there are always inconsistencies at the field due to low shelf life and sometimes poor quality of source materials or preparation methods.

    Adoption of biopesticides of predatory nature need a lot of consideration such as host crops and dispersal capability []. Crop coverage and exposure time are essential and for a small acreage this could prove expensive since application may be manual []. Registration of the products requires data on chemistry, toxicity, packaging and formulation which is not always readily available [].

    Impacts of Synthetic and Botanical Pesticides on Beneficial Insects

    The cost of producing a new pesticide product is usually high and has a lot of resource limitations []. Lack of a readily available market makes it hard to invest in biopesticides []. There are insufficient facilities and capital for production of biopesticides especially in the slowly developing countries. The shelf life of natural products is dependent on many factors such as temeperatures and moisture which are sometimes difficult to control [].

    Biopesticides also face high competition from synthetic pesticides and if the former were produced for a small agricultural activity, the costs may be relatively high and therefore not feasible. There is insufficient awareness about biopesticides especially among the small-scale growers, stake holders and policy makers. In the case of microbial pesticides, there is usually no trust in the value and use chain between producers, buyers and users and considering the risk of importation, synthetic pesticides appear reliable [].

    Despite the many challenges facing the adoption of biopesticides, they still remain suitable alternatives to conventional pesticides. Use of synthetic chemicals has raised numerous concerns due to their negative effects on the environmental, human health, natural enemies and ecosystem balance. Some of the active ingredients of synthetic pesticides have been found to be carcinogenic thus posing a threat to human life.

    Biopesticides offer better alternative to synthetic pesticides due to their low toxicity, biodegradability and low persistence in the environment. The base materials for biopesticides are readily available and inexpensive.

    1. Introduction

    Data on toxicity levels, chemistry, active compounds and their compatibility with other methods of pests and disease management is needed to aid in formulaton and commercialization. Globally, researchers have conducted studies on effectiveness of natural plant protection products with significant results being from in vitro experiments.

    There are also studies on effectiveness of biopesticides under controlled environments and field conditions with varying results. Further research is recommended to close the gaps in formulation of biopesticides. Stable products under field conditions will be a guarantee of utter effectiveness of biopesticides in crop pest management.

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    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1,

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