Le vacanze. Viaggiare a basso costo (Low Cost Vol. 3) (Italian Edition)


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To mitigate emissions from transport, the European Union has adopted new regulations and continuously supports research and innovation for the development of new technologies and solutions. The Commission has established a robust policy framework for the measurement and the reduction of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions of passenger cars. Furthermore, numerous implementing legislations have been adopted, also covering eco-innovations.

These regulations effectively create an important incentive for the deployment of CO 2 and fuel saving technologies, based on objective performance criteria. La Duke University di Durham ha realizzato un impianto pilota che sfrutta gli escrementi degli animali per ricavarne metano, da bruciare per mettere in movimento un generatore di energia elettrica. La ricerca e lo sviluppo sui rifiuti agricoli sono stati portati avanti nell'ambito dei programmi-quadro di ricerca promossi dall'UE fin dall'inizio.

Il biogas viene prodotto in impianti commerciali con l'ausilio di numerose fonti quali i fanghi di depurazione, i rifiuti agricoli, i concimi, i rifiuti biologici e le discariche municipali. Attualmente la Commissione sta valutando se tali criteri volontari siano sufficienti oppure se non sia necessario introdurre criteri vincolanti. Duke University in Durham has constructed a pilot plant that processes animal dung to recover methane from it, which is burned to power an electricity generator.

It is a new form of renewable energy that many, in fact, have thought about for some time, and which could make a large contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to energy production. Capturing the methane produced to put it on the market to fuel cars, for example, would be extremely difficult, which is why it is better to use it in situ.

Research to assess the actual environmental impact has just begun, as has work to find solutions for making the system even more efficient and economically viable.

VIAGGI LOW COST: 10 DESTINAZIONI PER UNA VACANZA A BASSO COSTO!

Research and development on agricultural waste has been pursued under EU Research framework programmes from the beginning. Biogas is been produced at commercial installations using a large number of sources including sewage sludge, farm wastes, manures, municipal organic waste and landfills. Across Europe, more than biogas plants are operating commercially today. Biogas production may indeed help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This will depend on the extent to which biogas will substitute the use of fossil fuels in a life cycle perspective, and on whether methane emissions to the atmosphere can be avoided.

Research and development is continuing in this area to produce better gas quality, to improve operational efficiency and safety and to help developing better regulation to bring the innovation to the market. If biofuels are produced, Member States should ensure that it meets the sustainability criteria contained in that same directive. Regarding solid and gaseous biomass for heating and cooling, the Commission published a report on a sustainability scheme for non-biofuel biomass in and recommended to Member States to use the Renewable Energy Directive requirements.

The Commission is currently assessing if these voluntary criteria are sufficient, or if binding criteria would be needed. Escudo antimisiles de EE. Graves consecuencias medioambientales y retroceso en el necesario desarme mundial. Does the Commission believe that Spain has infringed European law in the light of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on public participation in environmental matters? Does the Commission not consider it necessary that information should be provided at all times on the payload of those ships so that environmental risks can be assessed effectively and plans can be put into effect to mitigate those risks?

Does the Commission intend to seek information from the Spanish Government regarding these issues? The Commission would like to inform the Honourable Member that the establishment of a defence shield as well as related measures is undoubtedly an activity serving national defence purposes and as such outside the scope of the Aarhus Convention. The Commission does not therefore intend to take any further action in this matter. Respuesta de la Alta Representante y Vicepresidenta Sra. Russia has already warned that it reserves the right to reject further disarmament measures and to withdraw from the START Treaty on limiting nuclear weapons; and Spain, and thus Europe, will be turned into a prime military target for potential enemies of the United States, implying a greater likelihood of being attacked.

Taking into account the consequences for, and changes to, EU security which this decision by the previous Spanish Government involves: The EU does not have a position on this issue, which is the sovereign responsibility of Member States. Der Bereich Bildung wurde nicht explizit aus dem Anwendungsbereich der Richtlinie ausgenommen.

The directive, which was also transposed in Germany at the end of , should create a legal framework for facilitating freedom of establishment and freedom to provide services within the European Union. The directive applies to all services provided for remuneration, albeit with the exception of a number of sectors such as financial or healthcare services. The educational sector was not expressly excluded from the scope of the directive. Therefore, the directive could be applied to fee-based private education. The Services Directive applies indeed to education services as long as the educational institution concerned is not essentially financed by public funds.

The activites of privately financed universities are therefore covered by Services Directive. In a federal Member State, an authorisation of a private educational institution granted by one state Land should therefore be recognised, in principle, in the other states. Exceptions are possible where justified by a public interest objective. Exceptions to this general rule of unlimited duration of authorisations are, inter alia , permitted when the authorisations are automatically renewed or are subject only to a condition that they continue to fulfil certain requirements.

This could apply, for example, in the case of privately funded universities where a regular check is needed as regards the quality of the education being provided by a private university. To what extent is the Commission aware of this incident, and how has it been involved in any subsequent investigation? The study concludes that single-use plastic carrier bags, mostly given away for free by retailers, are particularly harmful to the environment as they are not degradable and are discarded more frequently.

Does the Commission recognise the inconsistencies present throughout the report, particularly in terms of the legal measures recommended by BIOIS? The views expressed in the study are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect possible future actions of the Commission. The assessment of various options to reduce the environmental impact of plastic carrier bags is still ongoing. A decision on the most appropriate instrument and its scope will be taken upon completion of the evaluation process. Nello specifico, si pone in rilievo che i cittadini in questione raccontano di un numero crescente di segnalazioni circa la presenza di personale militare inglese e francese a fianco degli insorti per organizzare azioni di guerriglia.

L'Unione europea ritiene che le brutali aggressioni e le diffuse violazioni dei diritti umani inflitte alla popolazione dalle forze di sicurezza del regime hanno fomentato la violenza in Siria. Tuttavia, l'UE ha continuamente sollecitato l'opposizione siriana a seguire un percorso non violento verso un cambiamento democratico ed inclusivo. L'UE sostiene pienamente l'inviato speciale delle Nazioni Unite e della Lega araba, Kofi Annan, e il suo piano in sei punti per una composizione politica della crisi. L'UE accoglie con favore le risoluzioni e del Consiglio di sicurezza dell'ONU, che autorizzano l'invio di osservatori ONU al fine di sorvegliare in modo imparziale la piena cessazione della violenza e l'attuazione degli altri aspetti contenuti nel piano dell'inviato speciale.

Tali misure sono concepite in modo da minimizzare gli effetti negativi sulla popolazione e vengono sottoposte a costanti revisioni. According to the witness accounts of a number of Italian citizens resident in Syria, reported in the newspaper Avvenire , the situation in the country is vastly different from that reported by European media. In particular, the sanctions imposed on the Syrian Government have had a very negative impact. It is highlighted in particular that, according to these citizens, there are a growing number of British and French military personnel working alongside the rebels to organise guerrilla activity.

Support for the liberation of Syria apparently now consists of contributing to the manipulation of information and fomenting civil unrest, which is destined to last for several years. In the coming days, the ultimatum for the withdrawal of the army will expire, despite the serious reservations of many inhabitants of outlying villages who see the military presence as a kind of guarantee of their safety as, according to reports, ambushes perpetrated by the rebels are rife.

The EU considers that violence in Syria has been instigated by the brutal attacks and widespread human rights violations inflicted by the regime's security forces on the population. Nonetheless, it has consistently called on the Syrian opposition to pursue a non-violent path towards democratic and inclusive change. It welcomes the UN Security Council's Resolutions and authorising the deployment of UN observers, which will provide impartial reporting on the implementation of a full cessation of violence as well as the other aspects of the Special Envoy's plan.

The EU is ready to provide necessary assistance to the mission upon request and urges all parties to the conflict to fully cooperate with UN observers. The measures are designed to minimise any negative effects on the population. The sanctions are kept under constant review. Un'azienda ha messo a punto un'innovativa pompa di calore a gas zeolite che, se impiegata su larga scala, permetterebbe enormi risparmi sia economici che ambientali.

L'energia cinetica delle molecole che si trovano rallentate viene trasformata in calore. Le zeoliti sono materiali estremamente porosi che hanno trovato vasta applicazione in molti settori industriali. La Commissione ha sostenuto la ricerca in quest'ambito attraverso i programmi quadro di ricerca e sviluppo tecnologico ed altri programmi.

A company has developed an innovative zeolite gas heat pump, which, if used on a large scale, would have enormous advantages in terms of both saving money and protecting the environment. The new heat source was produced synthetically in order to be used in heating systems. The molecules are slowed down and give off kinetic energy, which is transformed into heat. The pump is powered by built-in solar panels which trigger the adsorption process in the zeolite.

Zeolites are highly porous materials that have found widespread applications throughout many industrial sectors. The Commission has supported research into these materials through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development and other Programmes. The topics cover all aspects from zeolite synthesis to innovative applications. The Commission also supports research on heat pumps where both, innovative heat pumps and heat pump integration into larger hybrid systems are considered.

Cauzione per smaltire adeguatamente i cellulari. Si tratta di una cauzione di 10 euro sull'acquisto di telefoni cellulari e smartphone che verrebbe poi restituita al consumatore una volta che ha destinato l'apparecchio a un centro di smaltimento adeguato. Una stima rivela che vi sarebbero circa 83 milioni di vecchi cellulari nelle case dei tedeschi. La cauzione sui cellulari rappresenterebbe un primo progetto pilota. Se dovesse funzionare, infatti, si potrebbe estendere ad altri prodotti tecnologici come i computer, i tablet, le console per i videogiochi e apparecchi simili.

La restituzione di una somma di denaro ai consumatori potrebbe indurre gli stessi a porre maggiore attenzione al rispetto dell'ambiente e, quindi, a destinare i prodotti tecnologici a centri di riciclo adeguati. La proposta appena descritta ha suscitato non poche polemiche da parte delle associazioni dei produttori di oggetti elettronici. In Germany a proposal has been put forward to encourage more responsible use of technological products among consumers. As we know, the recycling of electronic appliances is fundamental for protecting the environment. The deposit on mobile telephones would be a first pilot scheme.

If it were to work, it could be extended to other technological products such as computers, tablets, video games consoles and similar appliances. The return of a sum of money to consumers could prompt them to pay greater attention to respecting the environment and, as a result, to send technological products to suitable recycling centres. The proposal described has aroused fierce debate by the associations of electronic goods manufacturers.

Deposit systems can make a contribution to the achievement of higher collection targets, but have also shown to have the potential to create administrative burdens and possible market barriers. In particolare sul fronte delle PMI, la recente indagine sull'accesso ai finanziamenti condotta dalla Commissione europea consente di rilevare che in Italia le condizioni applicate dalle banche registrano un netto peggioramento rispetto agli altri paesi dell'UE. Dall'indagine emerge che, negli ultimi sei mesi, ben il 75 per cento delle PMI italiane ha registrato un incremento dei tassi d'interesse, mentre quasi il 65 per cento ha dichiarato di aver visto aumentare le commissioni bancarie applicate sui finanziamenti.

Tra i principali paesi dell'area euro, Francia e Germania mostrano uno scenario ben diverso da quello italiano. Analogo discorso per il credito al consumo: Le PMI dipendono in larga misura dal finanziamento bancario e, pertanto, si dovrebbero evitare penalizzazioni di costo per le stesse all'interno dei singoli Stati membri. Le condizioni applicate dalle banche per la concessione di crediti sono determinate da molti fattori diversi.

Banks are exerting ever greater pressure on businesses and households alike. With reference to SMEs, a recent survey on access to funding conducted by the Commission clearly shows that the terms applied to bank loans in Italy have worsened in comparison with other EU countries. The figures for the major eurozone countries show that the situation in France and Germany is very different from that in Italy. With regard to interest rates, the assertions made by the SMEs polled by the Commission are borne out by comparative data compiled by the central banks and released by the ECB. The figures for new loans granted to non-financial companies show that economic conditions in Italy have severely deteriorated over the last two years.

In , the interest rates paid by Italian companies in were lower than those in the other major eurozone countries. In more recent times, however, expenditure on bank interest by Italian companies has been higher than that by their competitors elsewhere in Europe. The same applies to consumer credit: SMEs rely heavily on bank loans, and costs which penalise such companies should therefore be avoided in individual Member States. The aim should therefore be to maximise harmonisation, through a single corpus of rules. In view of the above, can the Commission say whether the terms applied by banks in Italy are incompatible with this objective and whether they could result in risks and underlying exposure being transferred to SMEs, thus constituting a measure that restricts competition between them?

Many different factors impact on banks' lending standards. This may explain why Italian banks have tightened their standards to a greater extent than their peers in other countries. In this respect, tightening of lending standards may be legitimate given that banks are expected to price loans according to the perceived riskiness of the borrower.

La gestione degli immobili confiscati ai mafiosi richiede un sistema di trasparenza e di adeguate forme di controllo volte ad assicurare che gli stessi abbiano la funzione e la fruizione sociale che la legge impone e prevede. Sulle orme della legge n. I beni confiscati normalmente sono venduti in aste pubbliche e i proventi ricavati sono trasferiti al bilancio nazionale.

The management of properties confiscated from the mafia requires transparency and suitable forms of monitoring to ensure that they are given a social function and are used as required and established by law. The possibility of allocating the assets confiscated from mafia bosses and other representatives of organised crime to publicly beneficial purposes has assumed essential symbolic value in the fight against the mafia and is a strategic tool that also makes it possible to challenge the mafia in the media.

The commitment of the European institutions must be to create conditions which ensure that the confiscated assets can increasingly become a resource able to effectively support the intended economic and social development of a territory that has long been suffocated by the sprawling presence of organised crime. Within the framework of recent European legislation adopted to fight the interference of organised crime in businesses and the economy, particular importance attaches to provisions on the traceability of financial flows regarding the implementation and supply of public works and services.

In particular, these provisions aim to prevent criminal infiltration in the area of public tenders, contracts, supplies and funding, creating the conditions for the traceability of all financial resources invested, mainly thanks to the provisions regarding the use of dedicated bank or post office accounts, even if they are not exclusively used for such purposes.

In view of this, can the Commission state whether European calls for tenders have been published to allow public involvement by the potential beneficiaries of properties confiscated from the mafia, and indicate the European legislation that guarantees the traceability of the flows of EU funds at all levels? These directives are applicable only to purchases of supplies, services and works, made by Member States and other contracting authorities. In addition, the Commission has no specific information from Member States regarding possible tenders organised by Member States for the valorisation of the assets confiscated by Member States from the mafia.

There are no specific provisions at EU level requiring the persons contracting with public authorities to use dedicated bank accounts for the related financial transactions with a view to ensuring the traceability of the flows of EU funds. Confiscated assets are normally sold in public auctions and the resulting proceeds are transferred to the national treasury. In Italy and a few other Member States, confiscated assets may become public property and can be reused for public or social purposes.

This proposal, which intends to facilitate the management of property frozen in view of later confiscation, requires Member States to introduce measures aimed at ensuring an adequate management of such property, notably by granting powers to realise frozen property, at least where it is liable to decline in value or become uneconomical to maintain. Interventi simili sono stati adottati in Francia la taxe soda sulle bevande gassate zuccherate, circa due centesimi di euro per lattina ed in Danimarca la tassa sul cibo ricco di grassi saturi, come snack e merendine, di circa 2 euro per chilo.

Negli Usa, molti Stati applicano da tempo una tassa sulle bevande zuccherate dell'ordine del per cento del prezzo. Secondo le informazioni a disposizione della Commissione nel la Danimarca ha aumentato l'imposta su cioccolato e dolciumi la cui introduzione risale al Tale legislazione si applica ai prodotti confezionati ad alto tenore di zuccheri, sale o caffeina. Al momento la Commissione non ha intenzione di occuparsi di normative europee sulla tassazione di determinati tipi di alimenti o di additivi alimentari. A study project has been set up in Italy to introduce a tax on junk food.

Its purpose is to reduce the risk of excess weight and obesity. Studies conducted on the American population show a clear positive relationship between the consumption of soft drinks and body weight, above all among young people the relationship is only doubted by the studies sponsored by the soft drink industry. Among adults, the obesity rate is However, the most alarming statistics are those regarding child obesity.

An obese child has a greater risk of developing chronic illnesses as an adult. Obesity is, to all intents and purposes, a public health problem since, besides reducing the quality of life and work capacity, it is a risk factor for numerous chronic illnesses, such as hypertension, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the treatment of which requires considerable resources.

Does the Commission intend to start a specific study on this issue, so as to arrive at a clear European law, taking account of fiscal best practices and the measures already adopted by Member States, given the need to correct externalities and information gaps in the food and drink market? These programmes could be realised by allocating part of the tax revenue to health promotion for the categories most at risk both in schools, with the involvement of parents, and in healthcare structures through a promotional campaign for healthy eating, through improvements to the food supplied in hospitals and through limits on access to hyper-calorific products from automatic dispensing machines and hospital bars.

The Commission is aware that some EU Member States have introduced food taxes as a public health instrument. According to the information available to the Commission Denmark increased the tax on chocolate and confectionery in it was introduced in It applies to packaged products with high sugar, salt or caffeine levels. There is limited experience with these type of taxes in Member States and limited knowledge of the impact of such initiatives on overweight and obesity trends. For a record of the most recent meeting on the issue the Honourable Member can consult the report at:.

La plastica segnala quando subisce danni diventando di colore rosso. Tale cambiamento provoca la tipica colorazione rossa. A new material which can self-repair when it is damaged has been designed by a team from the University of Southern Mississippi. The innovative plastic imitates the ability of human skin to heal over. The plastic reveals when it has been damaged by turning red. Then, if exposed to sunlight or artificial light, which causes changes in its temperature and pH, it can repair itself. The self-repair mechanism consists of long polymer chains that are crossed by small molecular links known as bridges.

When the plastic is damaged or cracked, the bridges break and modify their shape. This change causes the typical red colouring. Therefore, when the plastic becomes damaged, it will be possible to see this easily through the red mark that forms around the lesion. The new plastic is a sign of innovation and progress compared to other plastics which can only self-repair once. The product developed in the United States works just like human skin and can self-repair forever. Considering that this new material could have great potential and numerous applications, is the Commission aware of the innovation and does it consider that there would be environmental or human health risks should it be used in Europe?

The Commission is not aware of the specific innovation referred to by the Honourable Member and has no data on possible environmental or human health risks. However, if appropriate, the Commission will consult its risk assessment bodies and Scientific Committees if the use of these materials would give rise to any concern. Una regolamentazione per il crowdfunding. Come nuovo strumento per la raccolta di capitali, il cosiddetto crowdfunding sta avendo un impatto in tutta Europa. Tuttavia, per questo tipo di piattaforme non risulta ancora chiaro se possa applicarsi la normativa europea in materia di tutela degli investitori e di rendicontazione finanziaria o se si debba far riferimento alle normative nazionali in materia di fundraising e strumenti finanziari.

Il crowd-funding potrebbe rappresentare un mezzo economicamente efficace per aggregare tanti piccoli contributi, individuare potenziali finanziatori e integrare le fonti tradizionali di finanziamento. A new tool for raising capital, so-called crowdfunding, is having an impact throughout Europe. Crowdfunding has been used as a model for funding the most diverse start-up ventures on platforms such as growvc.

However, it is still not clear whether European legislation on the protection of investors and financial reporting can be applied to this kind of platform or whether national legislation on fund-raising and financial instruments should apply. Can the Commission therefore say what rules are applicable with regard to the legal status of crowdfunding platforms and investors and to the ways of accessing funding through crowdfunding, also stipulating what legislation on financial market instruments should cover crowdfunding?

Crowd-funding could offer a cost effective means for aggregating together many small contributions and locating potential backers, supplement traditional funding sources. In practice, the funding provided can take a wide variety of complementary forms — from more traditional risk financing through to types of donation or forms of pre-payment for services. Given the variety in funding mechanisms on offer and nascent form of the models, the interaction of these models with regulatory requirements across the financial services will vary.

Given this variety, a first step in order to ensure that the appropriate regulation is in place is to obtain greater clarity on the different forms of crowd-financing and the scope and nature of the services being provided. Crowd-funding could become a vital source of potential funding for growth, social and cultural innovation across Europe. The Commission will follow developments closely, from a regulatory perspective as well as a policy perspective.

No ano passado, este prazo era de quatro meses. Tendo em conta que:. Last year, the period in question was four months. The Portuguese fleet has been weakened and rendered obsolete by the adverse developments of the last two decades;. What action will the Commission take under the future common fisheries policy CFP , to mitigate this problem? How will the individual profiles of each country including fleet reduction over the past two decades, size of the EEZ and quantity of available resources, and fish consumption per capita be taken into account in the next CFP?

The reform proposals announced so far do not do so. Dependence on imported fish has increased over the last decades and now reaches levels where two third of fish consumed comes from imported sources. This is the average ratio for the European Union. For the reform of the common fisheries policy CFP the Commission proposes management of our resources in such a way that the exploitation is maximised in a sustainable way.

This will lead to larger stocks, with higher catch potential and thus higher yields than currently are harvested. The future CFP should take into account regional and national specificities as much as possible. For example, the Commission has proposed that fisheries management is regionalized, with Member States and stakeholders in the region taking the lead in defining the measures to implement the policies and to meet the policy objectives and targets. National characteristics may be reflected better in this regional approach to management, with a number of general objectives and management strategies, to ensure equal conditions and level playing field for the fishing industry throughout the Union.

Or does it believe that the same rules should be applied when more than one cohesion policy objective is being addressed? The current state aid rules allow for the financing of cross-border cooperation projects. Some are due to the participation of partners from different Member States in each project, others to the type of projects supported. The current initiative of the Commission to modernise state aid legislation including the revision of the state aid Guidelines to be applied in the next period allows for a broad discussion on such issues, including the projects on European Territorial Cooperation.

In this context, the Commission welcomes all proposals. Within cohesion policy, the territorial cooperation objective provides added value and has great potential in terms of competitiveness, particularly through job creation, and promoting economic growth. This implies a need for more strategic fund programming and for better coordination in terms both of funds and of European internal and external policies. With regard to the territorial cooperation objective, the priority has to be a territorial approach focusing in particular on specific regional characteristics, not only from a sectoral point of view, but also, and above all, from a strategic perspective encompassing the whole of the geographical area involved.

How can the Commission improve strategic programming and coordinate territorial cooperation financing more effectively with the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument? In what ways could synergies be fostered between territorial cooperation and the pre-accession instrument? What specific measures does the Commission propose to enable the implementation of territorial cooperation programmes, in their various aspects, to be linked effectively with the financing instrument for development cooperation and the European Development Fund?

The Commission will continue close coordination. In addition, IPA funds will continue to finance the participation of enlargement countries, where appropriate, in the transnational and interregional cooperation programmes under the European Territorial Cooperation ETC goal of cohesion policy. This trend is further supported in the Commission's proposal for IPA for No caso afirmativo, com quais medidas? Because they are directly linked to new challenges such as globalisation, climate change, demographic change and migration, they have the potential to become key elements in European strategies to tackle them.

Will the Commission move forward with practical measures to promote the outermost regions as. If so, with what measures? Is it in favour of strengthening the role of the outermost regions within the renewed European Neighbourhood Policy? How does it propose to do this? Will it publish any specific proposal aimed at taking advantage of the regional liberalisation of the outermost regions and trade development, particularly as regards improving transport between these regions and neighbouring territories?

In view of the ORs' geographical position, EU policies with an external dimension are key to delivering this strategy. To this end, the Commission intends to use the updated strategy to address the issues raised by the Honourable Member. This includes taking account of the interests of the ORs when negotiating trade agreements with their neighbours, when trade agreements cover products produced in these regions or and in regard to the improvement of transport between these regions and neighbouring territories.

The Commission also intends to continue developing better coordination and synergy between the cooperation programmes supported by the ERDF and other instruments the European Development Fund, the Development Cooperation Instrument, or the Partnership Instrument. What is the justification for the difference between the maximum co-financing rates for the two cohesion policy objectives of growth and jobs and territorial cooperation, especially bearing in mind that the increased budget allocation for the latter is likely to translate into a higher number of programmes in that area?

Regarding the territorial cooperation objective, why is there no proposal to differentiate between the various co-financing rates according to category, level of development and regional specifics? This contributes to ensuring a critical mass for the implementation of ETC projects given that with a relatively. The Commission does not expect that the increased funding proposed would lead to a higher number of ETC programmes. It would rather expect roughly the same number of programmes, benefitting from increased financial resources. Taking into account that the scope and purpose of cooperation programmes is different than those of national or regional programmes, there should not be a direct competition on the basis of the co-financing rates.

The Commission proposal foresees a uniform maximum co-financing rate for all ETC programmes. This is with a view to simplifying implementation, where handling different maximum co-financing rates can add a layer of complexity in programmes and projects. Simplification is of particular importance for ETC programmes given the implementation challenges deriving from the multi-country context.

How much of this total will Portugal lose because of the cancellation of the TGV project? All these lots were supposed to be implemented in single phasing before The Commission has asked for the submission of a revised project, but it hasn't so far received it. The revision can concern technical parameters of the lines, number and characteristics of the lines, the phasing of the project or a combination of these factors. As regards the Cohesion Fund no funds were yet attributed to the financing of this project.

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The Commission is waiting for the submission of a revised project and for decisions of the Portuguese authorities in this respect. The issue of Palestinian prisoners has not been made part of the political agenda of the peace negotiations. In particular the High Representative was very concerned about the critical health condition of the Palestinians held in Israeli administrative detention who had been on hunger strike for more than two months and the possibility that this might lead to a loss of life.

Moreover, countless thousands of unemployed people have lost their entitlement to the unemployment welfare benefits for which they contributed when in work. One of the consequences of this scenario has been a very sharp rise in emigration. Over the past weeks, there have been numerous reports on the plight of many Portuguese citizens who have had no option but to leave their country. There are repeated cases of Portuguese citizens sleeping on the streets, in cars, at train stations and even in public toilets, in the United Kingdom, Luxembourg and Switzerland, and there is also news of problems with workers in Belgium and the Netherlands.

The charitable institutions, including Catholic missions, which have been asked to help feed these people are in despair and are calling for a concerted campaign to dissuade people from emigrating if they do not have contacts abroad and an employment contract. What help has been, or will be, made available to people who find themselves in this situation and to the institutions that offer them support? What measures will be taken to deal with this calamity, for which the Commission manifestly bears a share of the blame?

The crisis has had a severe impact, especially on low-productivity economic sectors and has resulted in high unemployment. The Commission is aware that there is an increasing number of citizens taking up residence in other Member States, who are in need of social assistance. However, the Commission does not have precise figures, namely in what concerns Portugal. The European Social Fund contributes to improving the social situation and the living conditions of the Union citizens by financing a variety of actions ranging from promoting labour market participation to social inclusion and anti-discrimination measures.

In the Commission approved the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion aiming at reducing poverty by providing a framework for. The European Parliament adopted a resolution in in which it advocated establishing a minimum income at European level to help to combat poverty when other social poverty prevention methods such as access to public health and education services, professional training, housing, employment at a fair wage and decent pensions have failed.

The resolution advocates a minimum income appropriate to the European Union on a universal basis, supported by Community funds, as a poverty prevention measure and to ensure social justice and equality of opportunity for all, without undermining the specific characteristics of each Member State. The Minimum wage concerns individual earnings of workers, while the poverty threshold derives from household income, including from sources other than work.

The adequacy of minimum wages would be better illustrated by an estimate of net disposable income, including benefits and taxes. According to this calculation, a typical single full-time worker earning the minimum wage is at risk of poverty in eight countries: Setting minimum wages at appropriate levels helps preventing growing in-work poverty and inequalities.

The impact of the minimum wage on both demand and supply can differ markedly across Member States. Therefore, wage floors need to be sufficiently adjustable, with the involvement of the social partners to reflect overall economic developments.


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The Commission is further exploring several evidence based approaches including support for a tax-benefit micro-simulation model and social experimentation. In addition, the commission administrates a European Parliament pilot project Social solidarity for social integration intended to raise awareness of the adequacy and the role of minimum income schemes in fighting poverty and social exclusion.

This decision to suspend orders, according to chief executive Tom Enders, is retaliation against the European carbon emissions tax, introduced by the European Union and applicable to all airlines using European airspace. In view of the above, can the Commission state what its view of the situation is and what actions have been or will be taken to avoid redundancies?

The Commission would further refer the. The EU has taken a series of initiatives to tackle tuberculosis, including drug-resistant forms of the disease. Surveillance of tuberculosis has expanded over the past decade to cover the entire European Region of the World Health Organisation. Despedimentos na Bosch — Braga, Portugal. Once again, it is being proved that the sole aim of this practice — hiring temporary workers to meet the permanent needs of companies — is to make it easier to pay off workers.

The district of Braga has been one of the hardest hit by unemployment, which has led to significant social problems in the area. According to the information received from the Portuguese authorities the enterprise. There was no financing from the ERDF for this project. The Commission does not envisage at this stage proposing changes to the existing EU legislation on temporary agency work or fixed-term work.

However, the Commission has launched a study to assess its impact.

EUR-Lex Access to European Union law

Although it has already expressed political support for this innovative initiative, the European Commission has yet to mobilise the resources necessary to provide financial support for the project. What financial instruments that currently exist or are to be created in the Multiannual Financial Framework, either as part of the development cooperation policy or under another heading, are available to support this initiative? During the last five years, Ecuador has experienced profound political, economic and social change.

However, it is inevitable that failings and underdevelopment continue, which cannot be ignored. To begin with, the levels of poverty are still high, despite the clearly positive progress that has been confirmed here. This situation places new demands and challenges on EU development cooperation policy and its relationship with Ecuador. The Ecuadorian authorities have been advocating a redirection of cooperation policies towards development, underlining in particular the importance of cooperation in the areas of education, science and technology, and away from a welfare vision.

What cooperation projects are currently in progress with Ecuador in the areas of education, science and technology? This review was carried out in close cooperation with the Ecuadorian authorities and Member States and maintained education and economic development as the EU's cooperation priorities. Tangible results have been achieved. A progressive increase in state investment in education is allowing for infrastructure and equipment improvements, together with the introduction of measures such as performance evaluation systems for students, teaching staff and school rectors.

Ecuador has decided not to sign the trade agreement between the European Union, Peru and Colombia. In fact, the Ecuadorian Government supports a trade agreement aimed at complementary production, focusing on aid for development and not posing a threat to the weaker productive and service sectors of the Ecuadorian economy, nor to its sovereignty over key sectors of its economy.

Given that negotiations with Ecuador have recently been reopened with a view to signing a trade agreement, may I ask the Commission:. Is it prepared to negotiate an agreement based on a logic of complementarity rather than competition, which would pose a threat to its weakest productive and service sectors? The Commission notes that although contacts between itself and the Ecuadorian authorities have continued to be rather frequent since the conclusion of trade negotiations with Colombia and Peru, no formal negotiations have been reopened with Ecuador since the latter's decision to suspend their participation in the multiparty trade agreement back in Nonetheless, the Commission has consistently maintained an open door policy not only insofar as the participation of Ecuador — and Bolivia for that matter — in the Trade Agreement with Colombia and Peru are warranted in its text via an accession clause, but also by being fully transparent with regard to the prospects of such participation taking into account the requirements of the EU's ambitious trade policy.

As in all trade negotiations, the Commission would therefore be prepared to take into account the specificities of the Ecuadorian economy with a view to agreeing on an appropriate package without, however, reducing the overall level of ambition that characterises EU trade agreements. Greece is one of the partners participating in this project, and the elimination has come about owing to concerns that Greek gas company DEPA will not be able to continue carrying out the project.

Azerbaijan doubts that DEPA will be able to comply with its obligations towards the project. However, there is no intergovernmental agreement on a line interconnecting Greece, Italy and Albania. How does the Commission evaluate this development from the perspective of the interests of the EU? The selection of pipelines to transport gas from the Shah Deniz II gas field in Azerbaijan within the European Union is a commercial decision, which is taken by the Shah Deniz 2 consortium on the basis of specific criteria.

In a letter to the President of the Commission and the President of the European Council, the heads of 12 EU Member States have called for the implementation of liberalisation measures to encourage pan-European growth. The signatories call for liberalisation measures and the removal of protectionism. The prime ministers further call for more intensive negotiations with Japan and the Latin American Common Market, Mercosur.


  1. Vigilia di Natale a Swamp’s End (Italian Edition).
  2. Teaching Hospitals and the Urban Poor;
  3. .
  4. Il cimitero degli Angeli (BiBook) (Italian Edition).
  5. Social Life in School: Pupils experiences of breaktime and recess from 7 to 16 (Educational Change & Development S).
  6. Product description.
  7. Saltwater Aquariums.
  8. The Commission takes the calls to deliver open global markets and strengthen the contribution of external trade to growth and jobs in Europe very seriously. Bilateral negotiations have just been launched with Georgia and Moldova and about to be launched with Armenia. Consultations are ongoing with Member States to launch negotiations with Vietnam.

    The Commission will prepare a report to this end. However, some analysts are predicting further political obstructions. The Commission welcomes the recent progress in Bosnia and Herzegovina as outlined in the question of the Honourable Member. The country is indeed lagging behind and needs to expedite political reforms at all levels, before an eventual EU membership application could be considered credible by the Council.

    The Commission recently proposed suspending one third of the regional fund allocations for Hungary with effect from the start of This is an unprecedented step, making use of the newly enhanced sanctions for maintaining budgetary discipline. The country is expecting a deficit of 3. This, however, exceeds the permitted limit. Such a decision is, however, more than controversial. The Hungarian budget for and complies with European rules.

    The Hungarian Government has described the decision as unfounded and unfair. The fact that the Hungarian deficit is currently among the lowest is also important. Does the Commission really think it necessary and expedient to punish Hungary by freezing one third of its regional fund allocations? Moreover, the budget still incorporates temporary revenues from extraordinary sectoral levies. The Cohesion Fund suspension leaves the possibility for Hungary to continue investments through the Cohesion Fund and launch new projects, as payments resulting from previous commitments under the Cohesion Fund can continue.

    Once the Council has established that Hungary has taken effective action in response to this recommendation, the suspension will be lifted. The budget deficit is foreseen by the Commission services to reach 2. Therefore, the partial suspension of the commitments from the Cohesion Fund for Hungary is proposed to be lifted. Eight large European energy companies have come together in an informal alliance for secure energy. The alliance is described as a loosely based coalition of progressive energy companies sharing similar views on the rapid transformation of the energy system.

    EU firms are calling for legally enforceable targets to be set for in relation to emission cuts, renewables and energy efficiency. The alliance has called on the Commission and the Council Presidency to decide on legal mandates in respect of binding targets for renewables, CO 2 and energy efficiency up to The Energy Roadmap is currently being discussed in the Council with Member States, with stakeholders and with European institutions, in particular the European Parliament. The Commission will present further initiatives in , for example communications on renewable energy and the internal energy market.

    To achieve this target, it is necessary for the energy produced by wind farms and solar plants to be transmitted to consumers, which requires a more integrated, powerful and intelligent network than currently exists. This should come mainly from wind and solar plants, but also from backup gas units.

    That will be the result of adopting various measures for increasing energy efficiency. The Commission is not familiar with the particular report cited by the Honourable Member. Indebted EU Member States have begun selling state assets, including strategic enterprises and national symbols of lesser value. In addition to Olympic stadiums, the state is selling land on its islands, a telecoms enterprise, a casino, the national railway operator, mines, airports, an equestrian organisation and the state lottery. It is also offering the remaining shares in strategic, infrastructure and energy enterprises.

    Chinese investors are particularly interested in infrastructure. Portugal has also launched a massive privatisation programme. Ireland also recently published a full list of assets earmarked for sale. The list includes a very valuable strategic company: As well as strategic enterprises, less valuable national symbols are also being sold off by, for example, Ireland, Spain and the UK.

    The EU does not even know how much European debt China holds at the moment. The matter in question — to privatise state assets — is an economic policy choice which, in itself, falls within the exclusive competence of Member States. It is not within the Commission's remit. Proceeds from the privatisation of state-owned enterprises can provide important one-off contributions to the substantial fiscal consolidation necessary in countries under a macroeconomic adjustment programme. EU foreign and security policy does not cover issues related to privatisation of state assets in Member States. According to the Greek Government, the Republic of Macedonia is thus appropriating history.

    Both countries have been contending the name of Macedonia ever since the republic came into existence in , i. At that time, Greece had agreed that it would not block Macedonia from becoming an EU member and from participating in other international organisations on condition that it would operate under the name of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    The Commission has taken good note of the judgment of the International Court of Justice which has created an opportunity for both parties to re-engage in talks to find a mutually acceptable solution. Both parties have taken advantage of this opportunity, conducting talks both under the auspices of the United Nations, and also bilaterally, at the highest level. The Commission fully supports the talks on the name issue and encourages the parties to remain fully engaged in order to find a solution.

    It is in the interest of both parties to nurture dialogue and good neighbourly relations. The Commission closely monitors progress in this area in the context of the pre-accession process. Este enfoque es necesario para garantizar la viabilidad a largo plazo de la posible entidad fusionada. According to press reports, the Banco Financiero y de Ahorros, BFA, Bankia, is one of the candidates for the purchase of the financial institution CatalunyaCaixa, which is the third-largest Catalonia-based bank in terms of volume of assets.

    Does the Commission look positively upon the fact that a bank such as Bankia, which is outside the market in that it needs guarantees from the Kingdom of Spain in order to issue private debt, with the risk of potential losses that it could incur at the expense of the public sector, could purchase a bank such as CatalunyaCaixa?

    Does the Commission believe that a possible purchase of this bank by Bankia would reduce risks, improve its ratios and provide credit to the productive economy in a more efficient manner? The Commission is aware of the current situation of CaixaCatalunya and is following the case very closely. However, as the cases to which the Honourable Member refers are ongoing cases, the Commission is not in a position to enter into details due to confidentiality restrictions.

    In general, the Commission has consistently required three elements for banks under restructuring across Europe: Within the assessment of the first point, the Commission requires the Member State and the banks concerned to present a prudent and credible plan for the return to viability without the need for any further state aid. The Commission pays particular attention to the measures taken to address the weaknesses that brought the bank into difficulties, and to avoid such weaknesses occurring again in the future.

    That approach is necessary to ensure long-term viability of the possible combined entity. Does the Commission believe that this transaction would be prudent and would meet market risk capital requirements? Does the Commission not believe that, in the interests of sound management of private resources and the balancing of public finances, this entity should finance itself without recourse to the State and, ultimately, to Spanish citizens, and especially not in order to buy a financial institution?

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